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A General MeeeJing of !he Asiatic Society of Japan was held in tlic Amer- 
ican Embassy, Tokyo, at 4 p.m., Wednesday, June 16. In the absence of the 
Pret-ident, IT. E. Sir Claude MacDonald, the Chair was taken by Prof. E. M. 
Vickers, Mce-President for Tokyo. The minutes of the last meeting, liaving 
been printed, were taken as read. 1 he According Secretary announced that a 
catalogue of the books in the Library of the Society had l)een jmbli.shed; and (hat 
the following persons had been elected members of the Society : Dr. \\ ill \\ rcluiv- 
sky, Vienna, Austria ; Post Wheeler, Esq., American Embassy, Ti.kyo, and John 
Reilly, Esq., Salem, N.J., U.S A. lie al.'^o made the following announcement : — 

Mr. \N ilfred P>ertram Cuningliam, Assistant in the Pritisli Consular Service in 
Japan, has presented to the Society a translation made by him of the Table of 
Contents of the Imperial Household Deparlment's History of the Opening of the 
Country [K'ai/^ohi Kigeii). This work, in three volumes, numbering 2943 pages 
and embracing over 700 official documents, was presented to the Society last year 
through Dr. D. C. Greene, as announced at the time. The tal)Ie of conter.ls 
occupies 44 pages of small Japanese tyije. The English translation wi!l greatly 
facilitate reference to the work I'y foreigners engaged in historical research. 

The Cliairman then informed tl-.e audience how, by th.e kindness of Prof. 
E. Wells Williams, of Vale I'nivcrsily, his fath.er's " Journal cf the Perry 
Exjiedition to Japan (1853, 1854) " had l>een placed at the disposal of the Asiatic 
Society of Japan. He also exjn'cssed the pleasure and honour felt by the Society 
in being able to include such a valuajjle document among its Transactions. lie 
then called on the Recording Secretary, who read selections from tlie Journal, 



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Portrait of Commodore Perry with autographs of Sanjo Nai-daijin, 
then Prime iMinister, and Shozan Sakuma. 



A JOURNAL 



OF THE 



PERRY EXPyimON TO JAPAN 



(1853- 1854) 

BY 



0. 



S? WELLS WILLIAMS; \S\^-^^"^'^ 

FIRST INTERPRETER OF THE EXPEDITION 



EDITED BY HIS SON 



F^ W. WILLIAMS 



.>.*. 



1910 




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PREFATORY NOTE. 



Samuel Wells Williams, the author of this Journal, was 
born in the town of Utica, New York State, September 23, 18 13, 
the eldest child of a publisher and man of affairs of some note in 
a flourishing settlement on the great highwc.y of early immigra- 
tion along the Mohawk valley to the West. The son of New 
England ancestry, he was brought up in the wholesome but 
rigorous fashion of the Puritans. lie manifested at an early age 
the strong religious feeling that characterized him throughout 
life, but he seems at no time to have contemplated a career in 
the church, his chief ambition being to become a scientist. It 
was while preparing himself in Troy for a position as teacher of 
botany that an offer came to him from the American Board to 
take charge of the Mission Press that had been set up in Canton. 
After some months of hasty preparation for his new task, he set 
sail for China, arriving at the anchorage off Whampoa a few 
weeks after he had completed his twent}^-first }'ear. His life as 
a missionary during twenty-three years, with the exception of 
one visit home, was spent as superintendent of the press in edit- 
ing the monthly periodical, the " Chinese Repository," and in 
the preparation of a dictionary and grammar of the Cantonese 
dialect. During his stay in America between 1845 and 1848, 
he wrote and published the " Middle Kingdom," a work which 
for more than sixty years has remained the chief source of re- 
ference and of information upon the country and people of China. 

Mr. Williams' busy but uneventful life in the Factory in 
Canton was interrupted in the summer of 1837 by an invitation 



tt PREFATORY NOTE. 

to join the attempt on the part of a generous American merchant 

to return seven shipwrecked Japanese sailors to the Bay of 

Yedo in the .ship " Morrison.'' The experiment ended, as is well 

known, in utter failure so far as its immediate object was 

concerned, but the experience both broadened the mind of the 

young missionary and stimulated him to a study of the Japanese 

language and people which aroused an interest that never left 

him. It is difficult for us to-day to understand the indifference 

and ignorance of the Western world concerning Japan in the 

early nineteenth century. Despite the information which was 

accessible through the works of Dutch authors, there seems to 

have been a popular notion that the island empire was a 

semi-civilized derelict among the nations of the East that might 

at any time succumb to the power willing to undertake the 

expense of conquering it. Its remote position and a sense of 

the cost and difficulties of the task probably saved the country 

from the hazard of such an attempt. Through his acquaintance 

with these Japanese sailors and with the available literature upon 

their country, Mr. Williams was disposed to rate Japan and its 

people rather above the Chinese in both strength and culture. 

He apprehended most seriously the fatal influences of a warlike 

attempt upon the nation, and after his return to China set 

himself to the task of studying Japanese with two of the sailors 

who were employed in his printing office, desirous at once of 

giving them a means to earn their livelihood and of acquiring a 

fuller knowledge of their country. His account of the trip of the 

" Morrison ' appears in the September and December numbers 

of the "Chinese Repository" for 1837. As the periodical is 

not easily consulted now, it may be of interest to quote some of 

his reflections upon the failure of one of the finest bits of altruism 

that marks the intercourse of West and East : — 

" In summing up the circumstances attendant upon both 
attempts, and comparing them with what we could learn of 
previous trials, it was instructive to observe how gradually the 
Japanese Government has gone on in perfecting its system of 



PREFATORY NOTE. iW 

seclusion, and how the mere lapse of time has indurated, instead 
of disintegrating, the wall of prejudice and misanthropy which 
surrounds their policy. These circumstances also indicated 
their present feelings, for we could refer the greater part of what 
had happened alone to the Government. . . A people who 
show the decision of character of the Japanese, silently erecting 
their batteries to drive away their enemies by force of arms, 
and bringing their cannon several miles to plant in a favourable 
position, are not to be lightly despised or insulted with impunity. 
If the immediate aggressor escapes, \'engeance usually lights 
upon some unwary and innocent straggler, and the mutual 
hatred is thus increased. At Satsuma a pilot is sent to bring 
the ship into an anchorage, and the officers are made acquaint- 
ed with our object, which they apparently approve. It would 
seem that here, too, great distrust of foreigners existed, fioni 
the report that the people took us for pirates : and a rumor of 
such marauders in these regions must have reached their ears. 
The men (the shipwrecked Japanese on board) repeatedly told 
the officers that they need only tell us to depart and we would 
go ; but that before dismissing us, we requested to be supplied 
with fresh provisions. Yet a hundred or more men are 
commissioned to drive out a defenceless vessel with cannon and 
musquetry, and commence their attack, too, at a time when we 
should be in great jeopardy as soon as the anchor was off the 
ground. What course of conduct would have been pursued by 
the Japanese if ours had been an armed vessel, it is impossible 
to f^ay ; but I am more than ever rejoiced, now the experiment 
has been made, that no cannon were carried. However, 
towards a people who thus manifest decision of counsels and 
reliance upon their own resources, although exerted in a 
barbarous and savage manner, and on occasion when kindness 
was meant, a degree of respect and deference is paid. . . . 
They now regard foreigners as ready to pounce upon their 
feountry the moment it should be opened, and before they 
consent to receive them they must be assured that those who 



IV PREFATORY NOTE. 

seek their ports are peaceable friends. They can derive no just 
idea of other nations, or of their enterprise, commerce, and 
philanthropy from what they see of foreign trade, cabined and 
reduced as it is by their laws ; and who expects them to come 
with open arms and request free intercourse before they aie 
acquainted with the benefits they would derive from it ? . . 
Kecause one attempt has failed, shall all future endeavours 
cease ? We learn wisdom from experience. The rejection of 
the men, though painful to them and to us, may be the very best 
thing that could have happened : for if they had been received 
and we quietly dismissed, our means for doing them. and their 
countrymen further good would have been taken out of our 
hands. In this view of the case, and it appears reasonable, let 
U-s not abandon this nation ; but by making the best use of the 
men whom we have, get better prepared to do them permanent 
good ; and, ' By and bye,' if God permits, and as Otokichi says, 
' we will try again.' " 

The hopes revealed in this expression of a youth oi 
twenty-five remained in the man of one and forty when invited 
by Commodore Perry to serve as Interpreter on his expedition 
to Japan. He was well aware of his unfitness to take a position 
of this responsibility, but there were grounds, sufficiently justi- 
fied in the. event, to suppose that the Japanese would provide 
interpreters of their own with enough knowledge of Dutch to 
carry on negotiations. His familiarity with Chinese would 
render him a useful check (if nothing more) in the discussions 
to be expected. But the convincing reason that decided him to 
suspend, at a time when he could be ill spared, his professional 
duties in the printing office, was the opportunity thus afforded 
to plead for moderation with the sole arbiter of the expedition, 
and to explain whenever possible to the Japanese the justice ot 
the American demands. It is evident from the journal that he 
experienced some disappointment in both of these expected 
opportunities for usefulness. The Commodore was a man of 
determination, accustomed to the unquestioned obedience 



PREFATORY NOTE. V 

demanded on ship-board and seeking no suggestion from 
subordinates. Happily he had some of the best qualities of 
a statesman, if not of a diplomatist, and his plans had been 
carefully prepared beforehand. He was sincerely desirous of 
securing every available item of information about Japan, but 
shrewdly resolved to assess and sift each one for himself. The 
missionary, though not without some experience of men, was a 
man of books rather than of affairs. He chafed a little under 
the unaccustomed rigour of naval discipline and resented the 
seeming godlessness. Intercourse between the two men so 
widely separated by their antecedents, at first only formal and 
professional, eventually became more cordial, as they under- 
stood one another better, and ripened at length into mutual 
respect. There arc several passages in the pages which follow 
that show signs of passing irritation at Perry's lack of frankness,^ 
or his indifference to things which his Interpreter held as sacred, 
and these are not without their value as side lights upon the 
Commodore's character, but in the end the verdict of a careful 
and exacting observer was favourable. The best friend the 
Japanese had in the squadron became convinced that they would 
suffer no evil from a man of Perry's principles, and he maintained 
through his life a feeling of profound gratitude that such a man 
had been providentially designed to perform this difficult 
mission. If he was one who admitted none to his councils, he 
at least needed no prompting to be just. 

So far as his personal intercourse with the Japanese was 
concerned, Mr. Williams' hopes were not fulfilled. He an- 
ticipated opportunities of frank discussion with minor officials 
by which he might explain to them the peaceful objects of the 
expedition and incidentally inform them of the world outside 
their empire, but the thraldom of the Tokugawa tyranny was 
too severe to make this possible. While the political situation 
is clear to us to-day, it was by no means so at that time. He 
felt, though he could not comprehend, the pressure of a system 
which pervaded the very atmosphere and pressed upon the 



Vi PREFATORY NOTE, 

meanest subject. Yet while deploring their mysterious re- 
ticence, he sympathised with the wistful attitude of the only 
Asiatic people that appeared to possess a feeling of patriotism, as 
the West understands the word ; and he would have counselled 
them gladly had they been willing. " You must give us more 
time," he quoted Moriyama as saying : " It is all very plain 
to you, but we are like people coming out of a dark room into 
the glare of sunshine, and we do not yet see the bearing of 
things clearly." To coerce a high-spirited people like this with 
another Opium War would be to set back the cause of 
Christian civilization in the Orient for centuries : for " their 
soldiers," he wrote a few years later in reviewing the opening 
of Japan, " once formed the body-guard of the King of Siam ; 
their consuls once examined Spanish ships in Acapulco ; their 
sailors once took a Dutch governor out of his house in Formosa 
and carried him prisoner to their rulers ; their princes once sent 
an embassy to the Pope ; their Emperor once defied the 
vengeance of Portugal by executing her ambassadors. The 
knowledge of these historical events remains among them." To 
one so well informed and keenly appreciative it was an anxious 
experience to both watch and participate in a political cou/> 
d'essai the fearful possibilities in which were but dimly under- 
stood by either side. 

The outspoken manner in which certain traits and actions 
of the Commodore are criticised in the journal herewith printed 
is quite remarkable, when it is remembered that every writing 
of the sort kept by members of the expedition was requisitioned 
at its end by the Commander-in-Chief. So far as is known, this 
is the only diary kept on board a ship of the squadron which 
he did not personally examine, though this cannot, of course, be 
proven. From allusions contained in some of his letters to the 
author it would appear that the Commodore desired him to 
write a book on Japan after the Narrative of his Expedition 
should be published ; it may be that, in consequence of this wish, 
it was intimated from the first that the manuscript would not be 



PREFATORY NOTE. VK 

demanded. Whatever the cause, the result has produced, pro- 
bably, the frankest estimate of the man that exists. But while 
some of this is unflattering, and the Commodore might have 
winced a little had he read it, the judgment is eminently favour- 
able when summed up. There are certain pages of the manu- 
script which the author revised and condensed at a later date, 
presumably with a view to its publication in part ; but the pro- 
ject, if ever seriously entertained, was evidently abandoned. For 
his own part he was under no illusions as to his personal quali- 
fications for compiling a popular account of the Japanese Empire. 
He possessed no especial felicity in style and had no fondness for 
writing as an exercise or occupation ; nor was there much 
opportunity in his busy life to greatly extend the range of his 
interests and study the culture of Japan as he had that of China. 
Upon the recommendation of frien Is in America, endorsed by 
Commodore Perry, he was appointed in 1855, without his own 
knowledge, to the post of Secretary to the United States Lega- 
tion in China, and in this position remained twenty-two years. 
During this second half of his long residence in Asia his profes- 
sional and linguistic duties left him no time for serious interests 
outside of the land wherein his life-work seemed to lie. 

Two points may be briefly considered before concluding 
this prefatory note. The author of the Journal makes no claim 
to having influenced by his suggestions any part of Perry's 
diplomacy. Yet the various points in the treaty proposed to the 
Japanese were discussed before him, and it was owing to his 
representations that the Most Favoured Nation clause was 
inserted in the document, and one providing extra-territoriality 
omitted. The former provision was doubtless prompted by his 
experience as Interpreter in the Wanghia Treaty negotiations 
under Caleb Cushing in 1 844, and its omission in this compact 
might well have made the task of Townsend Harris, surrounded 
as he was with unexpected obstacles, one of superhuman diffi- 
culty. The latter had been proposed by Perry, but Mr. 
Williams during his residence in China had been so deeply 



VI ir PREFATORY NOTE. 

impressed with the hardship involved upon a civilized nation in 
requiring an abrogation of its judicial authority, that he persuad- 
ed the Commodore to withdraw it from his draft. It may be 
contended, indeed, that such an attitude was sentimental — that 
the lives of foreigners throughout the Strum und Drang period 
of the Restoration in Japan would hardly have been worth a 
rush without its provision ; yet the fact that he seriously wished 
to see another principle tried proves the sincerity of his high 
opinion of Japanese policy. It had no practical result, for the 
claim was exacted by other Western nations and its provisions 
accrued to all ; but he was gratified when the Commodore con- 
sidered his reasoning cogent, and the clause did not remain. 

The other point referred to concerns a discussion in Dr. 
Nitobe's " Intercourse between the United States and Japan " 
(1891) involving Commodore Perry's indebtedness in construct- 
ing his treaty to the draft of a compact presented by Donker 
Curtius to the Governor of Nagasaki in November, 1852. It is 
expressly stated in the Introduction to the official Narrative of 
the Expedition that "this draft was unknown to the Ameri- 
cans ; " nor is much reliance to be placed upon the quotations 
Dr. Nitobe makes in support of the bellicose attitude of Perry 
based upon Siebold's mendacious " P^roffnung Japans." It is 
fairly logical to surmise that, if there had been any knowledge 
of a Dutch treaty in the American fleet, the Interpreter would 
have heard of it and mentioned it in his journal. 

Some interest may attach here to the few words of generous 
commendation contained in the parting letter from Commodore 
Perry to Mr. Williams, written in September, 1845, as he was 
leaving Hongkong : — " In taking my departure from China I 
feel myself called upon by every sense of propriety and justice 
to bear the most ample testimony to the talents, zeal, and 
fidelity with which you conducted the important duties entrusted 
to your management as Chief Interpreter of the Mission to 
Japan. I say little when I declare that your services were 
almost indispensable to me in the successful progress of the 



PREFATORY NOTE. IX 

delicate business which had been entrusted to my charge. With 
high abiUties, untiring industry, and a conciliating disposition, 
you are the very man to be employed in such business."* And 
to this personal tribute may fitly be added the author's own de- 
claration, pronounced before the foreign residents of Shanghai 
soon after the news reached them that Townsend Harris had 
practically completed Perry's work, that " it is a triumph, in this 
time of the world's history, to know that intercourse with Japan 
has been reopened by Christian nations without injury to a single 
individual in the empire, without browbeating or threatening its 
government, and I believe with the general consent of the people. 
Treaties signed at its capital successively with the Ministers of 
the United States, Holland, Great Britain and France, attest the 
success of the policy commenced by Commodore Perry. Though 
their compacts supersede his, and that of Admiral Stirling of 
1855, I wish to place his negotiations as their basis, and it is a 
gratification to learn that the Japanese ofificials remember him 
with respect." 

F. W. Williams. 
New Haven, Conn., April, 1909. 



* Quoted in the Life ar.d Letters of S. Wells Williams (1889), p, 229. 




Dr. S. Wells Williams. 

(From a Japanese print of the period.) 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY 
EXPEDITION TO JAPAN, 



(1853-1854:) 



By S. WELLS WILLIAMS. 

On the 9th of April, 1853, I received a request from Com- 
modore Perry to accompany him to Japan as interpreter, he 
wishing to have me ready by the 21st, on which day he intended 
to sail. On his reaching Canton, I had an interview with him, 
and learned that he had made no application to the Secretaries 
at Boston respecting assistance of this sort, nor informed them of 
his intentions ; he said that this never occurred to him, for he 
had repeatedly heard in the United States that I wished to join 
the expedition, and would be ready on his arrival in China to 
leave. Dr. Bridgman was with me at this interview, and we 
spoke of various topics connected with the enterprise taken in 
hand to improve the intercourse with Japan, from which we 
inferred that this first visit this year was intended to chiefly 
ascertain the temper of the Japanese in respect to the proposi- 
tions which would be submitted to them. At any rate, no 
hostilities were determined on except, indeed, to repel an attack 
or actual aggression, for many vessels of the squadron had not 



2 A JOURNAL OF THE PEKRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

reached China yet, and he wished to make an experimental visit 
first. He added that he had refused to employ Von Siebold as 
interpreter, because he wished to keep the place for me — doubt- 
less a compliment to me, but not very wise in him, so far as 
efficient intercourse with the Japanese went. 

In conclusion, I told him that unless I could get some 
person to take charge of my printing office I could not possibly 
ka\'e Canton. At the next meeting of the mission, held April 
20th, it was concluded that Mr. Bonney leave his station at New 
Town and find somebody to take the house, if possible, and 
take charge of my printing office while I was absent ; he intend- 
ed, if possible, to get Mr. Beach or Mr. Cox, if not both, to oc- 
cupy the house, but in this he failed. 

I went to see Commodore Perry the next day and told him 
that I would go with him till October, and could not be ready 
to leave before the 5th to lOth of May in consequence of the 
various matters necessary to be attended to. It was recom- 
mended to him to get a lithographic press in order to assist in 
promulgating the wishes of the American people and let the 
people know what we had come for ; to this he agreed, and I 
purchased an iron press of Mr. Lucas for $120, which T hope 
will be a good outlay. I stipulated, too, that I should not be 
called on to work on the Sabbath, and should have comfortable 
accommodations on board ship. Moreover, I stated to the 
Commodore that I had never learned much more than to speak 
with ignorant Japanese sailors, who were unable to read even 
their own books, and practice in even this imperfect medium 
had been suspended for nearly nine years, during which time I 
had no one to talk with ; he therefore must not expect great 
proficiency in me, but I would do the best I could. In my own 
mind I was almost decided not to go at any rate, on account of 
the little knowledge I had of Japanese literature and speech, and 
am now not sure that I have been rightly persuaded by friends 
to go. It is strange to me how attention has been directed to 
me as the interlocutor and interpreter for the commander of the 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 3 

Japanese expedition, not only from people hereabouts, but from 
the United States, I certainly have not sought the place, nor 
did I expect more than to be consulted as to the best mode of 
filling it. 

All my preparations being made, and my teacher appearing 
with his baggage, I left Canton May 6th, in the steamer for 
Macao, to join the "Saratoga" and sail to Lewchevv. I was 
greatly annoyed on getting aboard to find that the lithographic 
press and materials were not there ; but it came down by fast- 
boat before sailing, for I found that Captain Walker would not 
sail till Tuesday in consequence of the \\'ant of bread, and Mr. 
Bonhey forwarded it on Friday evening. I spent a few days at 
Macao very pleasantly, and on the forenoon of Tuesday, the 
lOth of May, I set foot on board ship and sailed on the evening 
of the I ith, nearly sixteen years since I left in the " Morrison " 
for the same region. Of my fellow passengers then, Mr. King, 
Mr, Gutzlaff, Captain IiigersoU and three of the Japanese are 
dead. It was mentioned by Commodore Perry that I had a 
strong inducement to go with him from having been in that ship, 
as the inhospitable treatment received by the " Morrison " was 
to form one of the reclamations of the present visit. How vast 
a change has happened in the politics of China since that cruise 
in opening her principal ports and commencing a freer inter- 
course with her people ! When we returned in August, 1837, 
not a port on the Chinese coast was accessible, and nothing 
known of their capabilities. 

Wednesday, May iitli. — We were to sail to-day, but an 
untoward event this morning delayed the ship. One of the crew 
had been locked up in the cell yesterday in consequence of his 
outrageous conduct when under the influence of spirits, of which 
he evidently had taken a large quantity. He was an active seaman, 
but quite ungovernable while possessed with rum, and his conduct 
merited punishment. This morning he was found dead in his chair 
inside of thecell, greatly to the surprise of all, for he liad been 
visited only a few minutes before, when he refused his breakfast. 



4 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

An examination into the circumstances showed that he had 
taken a bottle of brandy out of the spirit- room while at work 
there, and, lest he should be detected, he had drank it nearly all 
off within a few minutes (half an hour), making excuses to get 
away from the room to take a draught out of the bottle. He 
soon became ungovernable, and was shut up in a cell where his 
noisy bawling and singing disturbed all the watch during the 
night and showed that he was still unfit to be liberated. He 
died without a struggle, probably of some interference in the 
action of the heart. The corpse was taken ashore in the after- 
noon by a boat's crew, having been encoffined and carried 
around the ship before the assembled crew, the marines present- 
ing arms and others uncovering as the body passed by. So he 
died, this James Welsh, as a fool dieth ; for no " drunkard can 
inherit the kingdom of heaven." Yet the grog bucket is daily 
brought on deck, and all who please take a cupful of the mix- 
ture, which tends to strengthen the appetite and confirm every- 
one in habits of intemperance. It is unfair to them, for the crew 
could easily be shipped without its promise ; and it is unfair to 
the officers, for the source of trouble is continued, while they 
are forbidden to whip those who may offend. 

Saturday, May i^th. — We are now fairly on the way to 
Lewchew, and are likely to have a head-wind all the way up the 
Formosa channel. 

I am hardly able to compose my thoughts yet to study or 
read to much purpose, for the novelty of the place, the number 
of people about, and the motion tend to distract me. I have 
begun to look over some phrases in Japanese which Giusaboro 
wrote many years ago. The more I think of it, the less satis- 
faction do I find in the prospect before me ; it was none of my 
own seeking, however, and I can only do my best. 

The news from Shanghai of the insurgents being in full 
possession of Nanking, which they were fortifying with Chin- 
kiang and Yangchou-fu is trifling compared with the reports 
brought by Mr. Meadows of their camp being governed entirely 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 5 

on the purest Cliristian principles, that they are Christians in all 
respects, and take the Bible for their rule of action, observe the 
Sabbath and preach a pure monotheism to all those around 
them. If half we hear prov^es to be true, truly a new day is 
dawning on China. 

Sunday, May i ^tJi, — -There were no services held to-day of 
a public nature ; no work was done, and generally the ship was 
quiet, men engaged in reading. It is a bad arrangement which 
leaves the holding of public services so completely in the hands 
of the commander, though, as we have no national church, 
it is not easy to say what rules could be laid down on this 
subj'ect. 

I have been thinking, in respect to the supposed successful 
result of this expedition, how soon the merchants in China would 
try the sale of opium along the coasts of Japan, and do all they 
could to induce the people of the country to consume it. How 
to avert such a sad result is beyond my sagacity, for no laws 
can reach the appetites of a people, no scruples will embarrass 
the seller in placing the temptation before them, and their moral 
principles are not likely to stand against a seductive luxury. 
This view would be more saddening if one did not remember 
that ths mixture of good and evil in this world is necessary for 
the development of the probationary plan on which this world is 
governed, and that God overrules all and will make the wrath 
and avarice of man to praise him at last. 

Friday, May 2.0th. — On Tuesday a strong wind arose from 
the north, causing the ship to pitch and roll about in the chopped 
sea caused by the same wind making everybody uncomfortable, 
and me sea-sick. I was soon unable to do anything but lie as 
still as the jerking of the vessel would allow, and passed a most 
uncomfortable day. The violence and direction of the wind in- 
duced the captain to change his course about noon and steer for the 
Bashees. Next morning the wind had ceased, leaving us under 
the lee of the Pescadore Islands, and about 3 p.m. the breeze 
sprung up from the eastward, as completely heading us off on 



6 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

our course through the Bashee passage as it had up the For- 
mosa ChanneL Yesterday, it was nearly calm all day, but this 
morning a light, two-knot breeze sprung up. For three days 
the men have been drilled by one of the marines and marched 
up and down the quarter-deck ; this is to make them expert at 
the musket and ready for an emergency. Among other things, 
they have been firing at a mark hung up at the yardarm, which 
most of them hit — it being a board painted like a man and not a 
difficult target. 

I have been looking over the Japanese phrases I once 
wrote out with Giusaboro, but they do not easily recur to mind. 
I have forgotten almost all the phrases I once had at my tongue's 
end, and am afraid that nine years' cessation from using the 
language has obliterated most of it from my memory. 

Tuesday, May 2^th. — The weather and wind were pleasant 
and favorable till yesterday morning, carrying us forward at a rapid 
rate along the eastern shores of Formosa ; we had a distant sight of 
the south end of Formosa and of Botel. Tobago-sima, too far to 
see anything more than their outline, however ; no other land has 
since been seen. Yesterday morning, the moon was full, and a 
change of weather took place, the wind coming from the north- 
east with rain and squall, and making everything and every- 
body uncomfortable. We are southeast of the Madjico-slma 
group, and find a northwest current setting us off to leeward, 
which is somewhat unexpected. Perhaps this current is formed 
by the wind blowing down the coast and, meeting the streams 
which debouch into the Yellow Sea, is driven off into the 
Pacific between Formosa and Lewchew. 

Such motion disorders one who is yet unused to it, and I 
find it almost impossible to attend to anything satisfactorily. 
Old Sieh lies abed most of the time and seems to be getting 
weak and heady from the motion and confinement ; he is old, 
and that indisposes him to exertion, besides the weakness which 
he feels from the disuse of his opium or tobacco. I begin to be 
almost afraid he will not prove of much service to me, but I 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. J 

hope I shall be able to get him recruited by a visit on shore at 
Napa, I have been aboard ship now a fortnight, and a greater 
change can hardly have passed over me than to compare the life 
I have had all the spring at Canton with this tossing, queasy 
and confined life in the " Saratoga." I suppose I shall be com- 
forted for all this discomfoit by being told that " it will do you 
good " ; but I shall be pleased to have it do me no hurt. 

TJinrsday, May 26th. — We made land yesterday afternoon, 
and not wishing to get in too near, stood off to southeast with a 
light breeze ; but when we drew toward it again at sunrise, we 
knew not the land, as it did not agree with any view laid down on 
the charts, and it was not until we had drawn up along its western 
side, opening one island after anotlier, that we ascertained that the 
ship was westward of the Amakirrima Islands, to which we had 
been drifted by a strong westerly current during the night. We 
had passed by so as to open the main island, when we saw the 
two steamers coming up on the northwest, the " Susquehanna " 
taking the lead and the " Mississippi " a mile or so astern. We 
gradually wore up, having a scant wind, and when Napa opened 
were far to the northwest, and to leeward, with small prospect 
of getting in to an anchor. After the steamers went in, a shift 
of wind enabled us to lay in from the northwest, and by sunset 
we reached the place and dropped anchor within a cable of 
where Ingersoll placed the "Morrison" almost sixteen years 
ago (July 1 1, 1837), and found a patch of ten feet, which I am 
glad to see that Beechey's chart has called very properly " In- 
gersoll's patch." The feelings arising in one's mind at returning 
here and remembering the party and their hopes, with whom I 
was then connected, are of a mixed character ; the residence of 
Dr. Bettelheim and his family is a great advance on the position 
of things then, and this is the entering wedge "of more extended 
operations of others. 

Friday, May 27/"/^.— At 9 o'clock Captain Walker and I went 
aboard of the " Susquehanna " where we found Mr. Jones, 
Bittenger and Bettelheim engaged to breakfast with Commodore 



8 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

Perry. We discussed various things at the table, and after break- 
fast Bettelheim made known to me his ideas of things as he had 
already spoken of them to the Commodore. His position and op- 
portunities for intercourse have greatly improved during the last 
few months, and m.any restrictions have been removed ; he has 
visited the north part of the island, and the people are not 
ordered away as they used to be. About ten o'clock Lieute- 
nant Contee* and I went ashore with him to see the local 
magistrate (ijii 'jj *g) of Napaf and tell him the reason why the 
presents he sent to the " Susquehanna " were refused. We 
^anded near Capstan Point and went up to Bettelheim's house» 
where we waited while the messenger went to announce our 
visit to the " Mayor of Napa," as Bettelheim calls him. Mean- 
while we talked with Bettelheim-^ and his family ; he has three 
children, one of them born here, and lives in a pretty comfort- 
able way — at least it looked so in the bright sunshine. In an 
hour and a half it was announced that he (the Mayor) was ap- 
proaching the hmg kzvan, having gone to the other hall near the 
jetty. We saw, on entering the place, a considerable group of well- 
dressed people, and the old mayor came forward and bowed. 
He was a venerable looking man of 62, dressed in yellow robes. 
We took seats, and I informed him through an interpreter that 
we had come on the most friendly grounds, and wished to have 
amicable intercourse ; that we declined the presents for the 
reason that none were allowed to be received by our laws, and 
we wished to buy our supplies. We also wished to see the 
IE ?M *§"' oi' Regent, on board ship to-morrow, and would there 
tell him what our wishes were and how long we were to remain 
here probably. He could not say whether the Regent would 
come off, but made no opposition to the request ; it was also 
intimated that a house would be wanted ashore for a hospital. 
This hint caused some stir among the retinue, but all feeling 
was repressed. During the interview pipes, tea and refresh- 

* Flag Lieutenant of the Fleet. 
\ Modern Naha or Napa. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 9 

nients were handed about, and every civility was offered us. 
The groups forming around us from time to time were very. 
picturesque ; silently looking on or else whispering among 
thems-lves, they walked around or squatted down, there being 
no other chairs besides ours. The room was matted and open 
to the air, inclosed in a yard defined by coral walls, the whole 
forming a pleasant-enough place for conferences. In three 
quarters of an hour we left and returned to the boat, the mayor 
accompanying us to the gateway and the silent crowd still 
looking on. The street is one of the largest in the town, and 
many groups were stationed here and there at the entrances of 
houses ; coral walls defined the grounds around each dwelling, 
and gave rather a dull appearance to the avenue, though it 
was lively enough now with, people. 

We reported progress to the Commodore, and at dinner 
with him I met Lieutenants Hunter and Randolph. A room is 
preparing for me on the taffrail of the steamer, in which I shall 
be comfortable in warm weather. During the day no one but 
the party sent has been ashore, but the boats have visited tliQ 
reef and picked up shells and other things. 

Satiuiay, May 2W1. — About ten o'clock the Commo.lore 
sent a boat for me and my teacher, but on reaching the flagship I 
was surprised to receive a letter from his hands, written by Bettel- 
heim, couched in the strangest st)'le of entreaty and advice respect- 
ing the conduct of the expected visit of the Regent to the flagship, 
and concluding with the hope that the natives would not conid 
near the ship, which. I myself more than thought would be the 
upshot of it, for no promise could be given by the persons I 
saw yesterday. It was about the oddest melange I ever read 
from Bettelheim, whom the Commodore had sent for and who 
ere long reached the ship. He soon was all in motion, and it 
was about concluded that if the Regent came off Commodore 
Perry should- not see him. However, about twelve and a half 
o'clock he was announced and Captain Buchanan took him into 
his cabin ; he was accompanied by the interpreter I saw 



TO A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

yesterday and several other officials, some with yellow and their 
attendants with red caps, while the Regent himself had a striped 
cap, all of them of a square shape, like a blacksmith's paper cap. 
Only the chief man sent his card, Jj^ J^ ^ ff' \h IB 1^ '::k^- 
A few formal compliments were passed, and Captain Buchanan 
rose to conduct him about the ship, which took about an hour 
or so and rather exhausted the old gentleman. The whole 
party showed considerable interest in the vessel and its 
inhabitants, which indeed must have amazed them if they have 
human ideas. The Commodore, after reflection, concluded to 
receive them in his cabin, and though I had for a little while 
been swayed by what Bettelheim had said, I was not sorry that 
he saw them, for the party came at his invitation to see him, and 
why not receive them ? They had brought a trifling present of 
two cakes and two jars of spirits which were to be accepted, 
and it was meet to thank him. All came into the cabin, and 
having been seated, it was told them that their visit was received 
as a mark of kind respect, that the American nation entertained 
the most amicable feelings towards Lewchew, and that the 
present visit was to open further intercourse with it. The 
proximity of the two countries across the Pacific Ocean was 
stated, and something said of California and its gold. Refresh- 
ments were handed around and all partook, wine and cake be- 
ing articles intelligible to all, and the Regent's attendants brought 
in pipes, the Commodore taking one with him. He seemed 
half stupefied at times, but it was probably amazement at his 
novel position, for he was frequently speaking to the interpreter. 
A motion to rise induced Perry to say that he should be ready 
to return the visit on the 6th proximo at the capital in Shui, 
"^ H^,''' and thank him for his civilities. Excuses were offered 
that it was far, that the King was sick, that the visit was a mere 
form and the presents contemptible and beneath notice. How- 
ever, it was stated that propriety required him (Perry) to return 
the visit, and he should not fail. The decorum of these 
* Modern Shuri. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. II 

islanders on board, and their subdued way of looking about 
did them credit. A barometer was shown them, a revolving 
pistol too, and the rudder was moved to and fro, the tiller ropes 
having attracted their attention. Nothing was here said 
respecting a house on shore, and all conversation with them on 
general topics was very slow and almost impracticable fiom 
their anxiety and the tedious line of communication. The 
Regent rose and left the cabin, and when on deck Captain 
Buchanan took him into his o\\ n room, there to take a glass of 
wine, and would have kept him a while, but he seemed to be 
desirous of going. The band played several airs which 
pleased them all, and the marines drawn up in order, the huge 
guns and large balls on deck were objects of great interest. 
The party left after a visit of about two hours ; a few of them 
seemed to enjoy it, but such a melancholy set of faces, fixed, 
grave and sad, as if going to execution, was hardly ever before 
seen on board the "Susquehanna." Bettelheim talked a good 
deal, and his way oi making signs and motioning with his face 
was very much disliked and wrongly interpreted. I hardly 
know what to think of the man, for he whisks about in his 
opinion like a weathercock, and after the Regent had gone said 
it was the best thing which could have been done, to see the 
Commodore, though his letter of four pages was to urge the 
contrary. 

After dinner we went ashore to B.'s house where Mr. 
Barry made out a list of provisions, to be given in to the flagship 
tomorrow. Major Zeilen also went to see a level place where 
he could drill his marines, and from that we visited the tombs 
of some foreigners buried on shore. I also left Sieh on shore 
at B.'s house to recruit a little. 

Sunday, May 29///. — It rained all day, and I remained 
aboard the " Saratoga " unable to go to service in the " Mis- 
sissippi " where it was thought there would be no preaching. 
Bettelheim sent back Sieh in the boat which brought the provisions 
to the " Susquehanna," and wrote a letter to Commodore Perry 



12 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

about interpreters. In the evening I took Sieh to the flagship 
and gave him in charge to Achin, Perry's servant, by whom he 
will be cared for. 

Monday, May ■i^olh. — The drizzling rain of yesterday 
cleared off with a pleasant sky, and enabled the "Caprice" 
to get in to her anchorage this morning. She has not 
had very pleasant weather and leaks in her deck. I saw 
Mr. Maury soon after his arrival, and was glad to see 
him looking so well. The Commodore sent an order 
on board ship to-day by Bettleheim for Mr. Goldsboro,* 
Mr. Harris and myself to accompany him ashore and get a 
house for the transaction of business. This order certainly 
carries with it a decided tone, and I am not so sure how we 
shall manage in carrying it out. However, we went off, 
Mr. Madizan, I.owrie and Stockton going with us. Mr. 
Bettelheim took us along the street beyond the bridge at Tumai, 
the same which I remembered to have passed by when we came 
ashore in this direction from the " Morrison" the morning after 
we anchored. About half a mile from the landing place he came 
to a public hall which we entered after the door had been 
opened by persons crawling over the wall. A messenger was 
straightway dispatched (or the mayor of Napa, and after waiting 
an hour or more the interpreter alone came with two constables, 
or lower officers, to whom we made known the Commodore's 
application for a place on shore convenient to remain at and see 
about matteis connected with provisioning the ships. The 
request seemed strange to them, and they said it was a better 
way for us to give lists of things wanted, and the articles would 
be brought off We rejoined that it seemed but decorous, after 
the Regent's visit to the " Susquehanna," that a convenient 
place should be rented on shore from whence men could be 
sent to each ship with what was wanted. The interpreter said 
there was no place fit for us, there was none vacant, there was 
no need of such a place and that the house we were in was 
* Lieutenant John R. Goldsborough of the " Saratoga." 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 3 

a schoolroom, as indeed we saw it was partly used for some 
such purpose. We talked to and fro in this way a long time, 
Adjirashi,* the interpreter, at last going off to see the mayor, 
while we remained for his answer. It was then concluded that^ 
as it was expedient to make a right out of our might, so we had 
better, if we wished to get a house at all, keep possession of 
this ; two of us were therefore sent back to get bedding and 
our dinners, while I went to report at headquarters, where in 
truth I got but little satisfaction or even approbation. On 
returning ashore, the messenger had not yet come back ; but 
while Mr. Goldsboro' and others were on their way to the boat 
they met him and returned to the hall where many native 
officers were still tarrying. His answer was to the same effect, 
and he could only still protest against our occupying the dwell- 
ing, notwithstanding he saw the bedding and other preparations 
we had made for remaining. It was a struggle between weak- 
ness and right and power and wrong, for a more highhanded 
piece of aggression has not been committed by anyone. I was 
ashamed at having been a party to such a procedure, and 
pitied these poor, defenseless islanders who could only say no. 
No one was incommoded by the act, indeed ; but perhaps the 
towns-people of Tumai felt it all the more keenly, and I pitied 
them heartily. 

Mr. Stockton and I were soon left alone with our three 
Chinese, for after Mr. Goldsboro left the house the native officers 
retired, and we made ourselves as comfortable as we could on 
the thick mats which covered the floor ; but the fleas and 
mosquitoes would not permit us to sleep, and the Chinese walked 
about all night. A large company of Lewchewans occupied the 
other rooms and kept watch over us, if the insects let them do 
so, for the men were very still except an occasional hum. The 
dawn showed that it was time to rise, and I was glad to get 

* Sp;It Ichirazichi in the Narrative of the Expedition. The medi;'m of 
Communication was Chinese. 



14 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPA?f. 

into the fresh air and terminate my first night in Lewchew, the 
unwilling agent, in so doing, of violence and wrong. 

Tuesday, May 2,1st. — Mr. Lowrie came ere long to relieve 
us, and when I reached the ship I heard Mr. Goldsboro' say 
that Perry approved of all we had done and was decided to 
keep the house, and was going to send two or three invalids 
there to keep possession. During the forenoon he (Goldsboro') 
went to the house to see about arranging for the comfort of the 
invalids, and while he was there the mayor of Napa came in 
with the interpreter, Idjirashi, and had a long talk with him 
respecting it. This man (the interpreter) has had considerable 
instruction from Mr. Bettelheim and during the talk he made 
out to converse on many topics, referring to plaees in China, 
countries in Europe, America, etc. He said he had heard of 
Washington as being a good man, but he thought Washington 
would not have done so. A written protest was handed in to 
make known to the Commodore the desires of the authorities in 
regard to the house, couched in respectful terms, in which, 
however, were two or three misstatements. 

The general feeling on the whole among the people seems 
to be more and more favorable to us, and they are learning a 
few things gradually. The constant presence of officers and 
men ashore familiarizes them with us, and the crowds of idle 
people are as large as ever. Boatloads of visitors throng the 
flagship and the crew are glad to show them this and that. " ., 

Wednesday, June 1st. — Went ashore with Purser Parry, 
when we learned that the authorities will not acknowledge our 
presence in the house we have taken, and provisions must be 
forwarded thro' their purveyors who will receive lists from 
Bettelheim only. It is surprising what a degree of quiet resis- 
tance an organized government like this can offer to violence, 
without any overt act of violence, without giving any excuse for 
wrong by doing the like themselves. They feel their weakness 
and have no intention probably of resisting by force ; but the 
complete sway they have over the common people enables them 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 5 

to wield what power they have to the best advantage. I need 
cite only one fact : wishing to go to the " Saratoga ", I hailed 
a boat which had just left the steamer and went in her ; as she 
left to go ashore I threw a bunch of cash into the boat, but it 
was with much trouble brought aboard, tho' it could have been 
divided among them without one being more interested in 
keeping it secret than another. We went up to the house to 
bring away a sedan-chair for Perry's use, and found all quiet. 
Captains Buchanan and Adams were there and had brought 
Perry's answer to the petition to Goldsboro' sent in yesterday. 
On the way back to the boat one of the Chinese carrying it 
stopped to look at a market by the roadside, and his contemptu- 
ous look at the beggarly assortment of leaves, pottery, fuel and 
eatables was not more amusing than the gaping wonder of the 
women and people at his gigantic height (6 ft. 2 in.) compared 
with their Lilliputian size. I never before saw such a lot of 
hags together as in this market. 

After having put Perry's answer into Chinese, old Sieh 
went ashore by mistake, and in his stupid way was left behind, 
and had some trouble in getting the natives to take him aboard. 
I supposed he would have gone to Bettelheim's house instead ; 
he does not recruit much, and I am afraid will die. 

The " Caprice " goes to-morrow and many are sending 
their clothes over to Shanghai to be washed, as there is little 
prospect of getting it done here. The letter-bag takes Bettel- 
heim's first letter sent off for eleven months, besides $800 sent 
over to put in the bank there to his credit — his " own sweat 
and blood " ' he says. He says that he has not been able to 
come to any explicit understanding with the rulers or people as 
to the price of the provisions he consumes ; they bring food and 
he lays down money, and no accounts are drawn out. Pie eats 
what they bring, they take away what he lays down, 

Thursday , June 2nd, — I moved my baggage over to the 
" Susquehanna " before breakfast and spent some time in getting 
to rights there. After copying out the reply to the mayor's 



1 6 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

petition I went ashore with Bettelheim with it, and after waiting 
a short time we were informed that he was waiting to receive it 
at the town hall. (Commodore Perry had sent a cake to Mrs. 
B., and the children were eager to get a taste.) On reaching 
the town hall we were much surprised to see the Regent there, 
and a feast spread out on five tables, with a large crowd of 
officials in attendance, the whole indicating considerable expecta- 
tion for somebody. I went in and handed the paper to the 
mayor, who was seated at the table, and said that he would look 
at it by and by, and showed no idea of opening it there, We 
bowed to the Regent and soon learned that the party was 
waiting for the Commodore, who I suspect had no idea of the 
matter. It seems that they either did not, or would not, under- 
stand the declining of this feast, to which they had invited Perry 
on Tuesday, who could only reply verbally at the time their 
card came off to the ship. I knew not that any written invita- 
tion had been given, for Perry had never said a word on the 
matter ; and therefore I could only say to Idjirashi that I knew 
nothing of it, nor whether the Commodore was coming, except 
that he was busy and had not intimated his intentions. The 
matter was miserably managed, anyhow, for a written invitation 
was probably sent, for Achin told me that the authorities had 
invited Perry, and I think a written card would not be neglected. 
If he had a paper in Chinese he did not understand, why did he 
not find out what was told him ? A written refusal was the 
least the authorities could expect. The feast was proposed by 
them doubtless as a means of avoiding a meeting at Shui ; this 
refusal gives them a handle, and not having had a written 
refusal, a longer handle, to take exception at granting that 
interview. 

I reported the matter to the Commodore who said that as 
he had had only a verbal invitation he gave only a verbal refusal. 
The impression of a show of some sort was very general among 
the people, for there must have been five or six hundred people 
in the streets, probably v/aiting for the guests. About 3 o'clock 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. IJ 

Idjirashi and others brought a portion of the dinner on board 
the flagship, and if words could be received as denoting real 
feelings they certainly learned the real reason for declining it. 
They said that as Perry could not come to the dinner they had 
brought it off for him ; and a pretty show they had made of it. 
The whole was taken away by the officers and men, and the 
natives went back, probably rather mortified at their reception, 
for nothing was offered them while on board, not even a chair. 

Friday, June y^d. — My quarters on the " Susquehanna's " 
taffrail are likely to pi'ove very commodious when completed ; 
just now I am at rather odd ends. Dr. Bettelheim wrote a 
letter to the Commodore in his usual singular fashion (calling 
him " father " and desirous to obey his orders, and talking of 
of " glorious mission,'' and the flagship a " throne," and Perry 
an " autocrat " whose glance should be law to the natives), yet 
finding fault with everything which has been done, chiefly, as far. 
as we can learn, because he was not consulted. Yet when he read 
Adams' reply in Perry's cabin yesterday he called it " excellent " 
and approved of it all. The man does not seem to know his own 
mind for a day, but evidently wishes to be consulted about 
everything and have his advice followed. He is not at all 
backward in sending or begging for things, while he, Jew-like, 
puts his money in the bank. However, this must be added, 
that he cannot spend much money here for his family, even if he 
wished, for he is not allowed to buy at will ; and this sum may 
be the surplus of his salary. This P.M. he visited the flagship 
to report the result of the Regent's colloquy with him, and 
brought a petition from the Regent to the effect that the Queen 
Dowager was exceedingly ill, having never recovered from the 
alarm caused by the visit of Captain Shadwell in the " Sphynx " 
in February, 1852, and begged the Commodore to repair to the 
Prince's hall, where a personal interview could be held. He 
also proposed an exchange of another house in place of the one 
now occupied, and mentioned a temple as suitable for our use. 

In reading such a document one can hardly explain all its 



l8 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

features by either Chinese or Japanese policy. The form of a 
petition (which is the constant style here toward foreigners) in- 
dicates a kind of servile feeling which their consistent persistence 
in upholding what they call and hold to be law rather denies ; 
and their duplicity in these papers shows conscious weakness 
which their complete control over their own people again con- 
travenes. The oligarchy of the gentry tyrannize over the people 
by means of moral suasion which, to have its present effect, must 
have been long exerted and commenced in youth. The Chinese 
classics are regarded as the standard of morals, and certainly 
here show what a means of degrading the human mind they can 
be made, crushing all responsibility and paralyzing the industry 
of the mass. 

In the evening our walks led out to the pier and by the 
junks, and no change seemed to have been made here since 1837. 
A score of junks lay in the harbor, some after the Chinese model 
and some building of the Japanese fashion. A watering party ot 
Japanese sailors passed by, but we saw none ashore, nor a large 
number in the junks. The market place for vegetables was full 
of people, and all the sellers were women, perhaps 600 of them, 
most of them remarkable for their long, coarse hair and plain 
features. The police follow us everywhere, making no opposi- 
tion nor warning the people away, but yet acting as a check to 
intercourse. Few articles of interest are seen in the streets and 
there are no shops for wares opened anywhere. There were not 
many buyers and little alarm was manifested, tho' the women 
would always leave their baskets when we approached. The 
streets of dwellings are dull-looking by reason of the almost 
uniform dead wall in front of them, but these walls of coral are 
usually well built and look as if they had stood many years. 
We tried to enter no houses and saw few entrances so arranged 
that even the yard could be observed. The people occupy five 
times the space which Chinese do, but their comforts I suspect 
are not proportionate to the larger ground they occupy, though, 
as a whole, they seem to be well fed. Their sober, downcast 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. ip 

aces take away much from their looks, and repress all attempts 
to make one's self understood by talking to them. 

Saturday, June ^th. — I was kept in the ship all day pre- 
paring the presents and drawing out the reply to the Regent's 
petition telling him that he (Perry) must go to the palace and, if 
the other house suits his purpose, he will change to it. The old 
teacher was loth to take up his pencil, but we got it ready by 
two o'clock and was j'ust on the point of sending it in a boat, 
when to our general surprise, the Regent himself with his usual 
retinue came aboard. He was received by Captain Buchanan in 
his cabin and on being seated handed another petition to him for 
the Commodore, which was merely another request not to come 
to the palace, as the Queen Dowager was very sick, and the 
Regent's house was the spot to repair to. He wished, but un- 
availingly, to see Perry who would not appear. We declined 
taking their paper down to him, for after reading it we told them 
the answer was already contained in the answer now handed to 
him ; this they deferred to open while on board. Captain 
Buchanan offered them some drink so strong that they could not 
take it ; for all I know it was clear brandy. He showed in 
every action, his unwilling consent to have them remain long, 
and this was increased by Bettelhein appearing, who it seems 
had been invited off" by the Regent to facilitate intercourse. 
However, it was no use ; they could not see the Commodore or 
get any other answer than a reference to the paper handed them. 
It was a childish visit, and one hardly knows how to act toward 
such children, who must be in a manner coerced for their own 
good. To talk about the principles of international law being 
applicable to such people is almost nonsensical ; they must first 
be taught humanity and self respect. 

Before leaving they designated a man to accompany an 
officer to the other house they are willing to have us occupy, 
which proved to be the one formerly occupied by Forcade.* 

* A French missionary who left Naha in 1846. Admiral Jurien de la 
Gravi^re, who visitecl the Island in 1848, carried away the survivor of two French 



20 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

Owing to the fresh breeze Captain Buchanan sent the Regent 
ashore in a cutter, and was glad to be rid of them. Bettelheim 
had a long talk with Perry ; he is becoming more than ever 
disliked by everybody, and took an unlucky step in coming 
aboard to-day, when he was unwished. 

I came across the Regent's invitation to dinner a day or 
two ago, so that the contretemps might have been avoided if 
Perry had laid by the paper less carefully. 

Mr. Jones and his party returned to-day and gave a good 
report of his tnp,t and said there was much more to be dis- 
covered and hoped another opportunity would be given of ex- 
ploring the island toward the extreme north. 

Monday, June 6th. — By half past nine the party had reached 
the landing place near Tumai, where it was formed in military 
order under the trees there, and started for Shui ^f )ji§ about 
half-past ten A.M. The authorities had sent two guides and 
provided ten sedans and four horses, but in going up all prefer- 
red to walk, the day being very pleasant and agreeable, and they 
were told to follow after us. The guides went first, then came 
Bettelheim and I to see that they did not carry us to the wrong 
place. A party of sailors with two brass field pieces under Mr. 
Bennett's command, a company of marines, the " Mississippi's " 
band. Commodore Perry in a sedan chair, the coolies with the 
presents behind him and a marine each side of the chair, the 
officers in undress uniform, the "Susquehanna's " band, marines, 
etc., amounting in all to over 200 men, made up the procession. 
As it passed up the well-paved road and wound through the 
defiles or turns in the ascent to Shui it presented a beautiful 

priests who had been left there two years before, the elder P6re Adnet having 
died. They were completely discouraged by their treatment by the natives. He 
says : — " Nos missionnaires avaient done ete forces de s'avouer qu'un plus long 
Sfejour aux iles Lou-lchou ne leur apprendrait point le moyen de lutter avec 
avantage contre la police la plus vigilante du monde, et de propager la religion 
chretienne dans un pays ou personne ne se soucie d'encourir pour una foi quel- 
conque I'exil, la prison ou la bastonnade. A dater de ce jour, ils ne songerent 
qu'a retourner en Chine, ou de plus belles moissons recompenser leur zele." 
( Vo)<age de la Corvette la Bayonnaise dans les mers de Chine, I, p. 227). 

t The report constitutes Chapter VIII of the Narrative of the Expedition. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 21 

appearance, such as no Levvchewan had ever before gazed on. 
The distance was about three miles, and nothing could have 
been more charming than some of the scenes which opened 
upon us as we advanced — temples, ricefields, copses, houses and 
walled inclosures succeeding one another in pleasing exchange. 
At the entrance to the capital stands an honorary portal bearing 
the inscription t^ \\\ which means, I am told, the capital of the 
country. It was of fine proportions, the central gateway being 
twenty feet or so high and the side ones fifteen or so. Here 
commenced a level, macadamized road for the rubble paved 
one, and the walls on each side higher and solidly built. 

Standing just beyond this portal, to my surprise stood the 
simpleton of a Regent with a large company of officers, and 
Idjirashi came up to beg us to turn in at his yamun which our 
guides were j'ust about to do ; Bettelheim, too wanted to parley 
with them, but I pulled him along and said I would not speak 
with any of them. Thus we went on up to the palace gate, a 
man running on ahead to open it, and our host trudging along 
in his slipshod, toe-thumb stockings by our side, putting himself 
by his silly conduct in a ridiculous position. I let him enter the 
gate a minute or two ahead, and then sent in the cards by Achin, 
for Perry was now nearly at the gate. One of the natives took 
me by the hand to beg me not to let the marines enter, and 
seemed vastly relieved by the assurance that they were not to 
enter. Near the gate was another honorary portal* like the 
other, with a different inscription ^ j(^ ;^ ^J Shui's domain. 
Going in we passed through a second door into a yard, at the 
upper and raised part of which was a tripartite doorway leading 
into the palace yard, inscribed ^ jp^ f^, "Door for receiving the 
gods" ; the authorities were all standing at a side hall, the one in 
front being shut. When the principal persons were seated a few 
iormal questions were asked, tables were placed before us (for 
the hall was perfectly bare of furniture) and tea and pipes 

* Portrayed in Dr. Guillemard's "Cruise of the Marchesa," Vol. T, Chap. Ill, 
which contains a description of the palace. 



22 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

introduced. The Regent and three Treasurers were seated in 
chairs opposite the commodore and his captains. They had 
soon the list of presents in their hands and presently arose to 
return thanks to the donor by a low bow. The Commodore 
then inquired after the health of the Prince and Queen Dowager, 
and offered the use of his physicians to assist in curing her. 
The Lewchewans seemed to have nothing to say to us, but 
rather to endure our presence ; and Perry did not intend to 
introduce any topic. The hall, called the ^ M^M> '^^ High 
Inclosure for Fragrant Festivities, was the same where Captain 
Shadwell delivered Lord Palmerston's letter and, like the rest of 
the establishment, very little used. No preparation had been 
made for us here, and the Regent begged us to stop a little 
while at his office on our return, which was agreed to ; he had 
evidently made the preparation there. 

The courtyards were paved in alternate strips of cut granite 
and sand, and were clean ; the woodwork was painted when 
new, but now had begun to decay from exposure. The outer 
walls were built of stone, much of it laid on the scarp of the 
hill, so that the outer look of the place was not unlike a fort, 
and was doubtless designed for some possible contingency of 
defense against insurgents ; even now it could easily be garrison- 
ed and fortified. 

The Regent being evidently uneasy, his guests arose, and 
we were soon on the way to his quarters. Perry walking this 
distance with them. The people were not numerous in the 
broad way, and some saw the rattan laid over their backs when 
they encroached too near in peeping thro' the bushes. This 
day was for the grandees, and the vulgar were not to intrude. 
The Regent had indeed gone to considerable trouble, there 
being some fifteen tables spread with small saucers filled with 
cold viands, vegetables and drinks ; and soon warm dishes were; 
introduced. . There were many yellow-capped officers standing 
about the room, but all the waiters had red caps and most of 
them blue dresses of a pretty hue ; the four high officers in their 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 2^ 

variegated caps sat opposite Commodore Perry like so many 
Nestors, grave, silent and ratlier sad — but nothing had spoiled 
their appetites, for they cleared most of the warm dishes. The 
Regent proposed to drink to America ; Perry replied by the 
health of the Prince and Queen Dowager, and that our coun- 
tries might always be at peace, all emptying their thimbles of 
cups each time. At the close each party drank the other's good 
health, and we rose to leave before the twelve courses were all 
brought in, which Bettelheim said was a royal feast. There 
was no lighting up of the faces of the old men, and they were 
evidently wishing us away, tho' a good many of the younger 
people were amused. What anybody could have found fault 
with I don't see, but mortified pride can always find vexation. 

After two hours we left, the four chiefs accompanying Perry 
to the door and then hastening back with joyful step as tho' 
relieved. Some saw signs of secret observers peeping thro' 
pin-holes in a side room, and I guess there were many such. 
On the way back the accompanying crowd was large, and all of 
Napa came down, except the women, to see the show. We 
reached the ships at a quarter of three o'clock P.M. - , 

Tuesday, June "jth. — Busy all day making out Perry's note 
to the Regent expressing his satisfaction at the reception, dislike 
of the spies tagging us everywhere, wishing him to appoint a- 
man to take the money for the supplies and telling him of his 
intention of going to Japan. He also got up a present for the 
Queen Dowager and the other Treasurers ; the former's of 
looking-glasses, soap, perfume, etc. In the evening took a walk 
up to Shui with Wayne and Dr. Smith ; I was a little sore from 
my ride on the naked saddle I found on the horse given me at 
Shui, but this walk made me limber again, and we enj'oyed the 
walk much, finding new beauties in the scenery. The crops 
looked well and the whole country gave promise of sufficient 
food for its inhabitants. The road was occupied with many 
persons going to and fro, some of whom were driving horses 
laden with bundles. Altogether, tlie women are the most 



34 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

degraded part of the population and seem pressed down by 
their hard, servile work ; no smiles, no laughing do we hear 
from them, and some of them are harridans beyond comparison. 
They do not flee so much as they did, but no approaches are 
made, apparently, to their good will. On returning we saw 
some persons turning up vegetable beds with short-handled 
mattocks at a great expense of labor. A large funeral proces- 
sion was leaving Shui by another road from us, and we could 
hear, half a mile off, the wailing of the mourners as they drag- 
ged along between two supporters. The coffin was carried in a 
high-roofed red box on men's shoulders about the middle of the 
line ; there were more than a hundred people in it. 

The authorities made their last struggle this evening not to 
take payment for the provisions furnished the ships — a strange 
contest, and one would wish no stronger proof of the force of 
law and power of espionage and oppression. However, they at 
last assented. One objection, that Purser Barry was not of a 
high rank enough to treat with them on such a matter, rather 
excited him, besides causing the others some amusement. It 
was a well arranged meeting to compel them to give way on 
the point, in which they have always succeeded, and which is 
really one of the most singular in their policy — that of refusing 
payment for supplies. A lot of 200 boards was also needed, 
and at last was promised on their part. In all these proceedings 
Idjirashi acts a most important and conspicuous part and 
shows a deal of cleverness. 

Wednesday, June 8th. — A deputation was sent ashore this 
morning to the mayor of Napa, composed of Lieutenant Contee, 
Mr. Barry and myself, taking with us the document prepared 
yesterday for the Regent and the presents for the Queen Do- 
wager and two Treasurers, called Mau Fungming ^ ML 1.^> the 
other ^ fj§ ^^ Ung Teh-yu, who manage the revenue of the 
other departments of the island ; the last each received a sword, 
four pieces of cotton, two bottles whiskey, one of wine, an 
engraving and a cake. We were also to give a threatening 



A JOURNAL OF THE PEKRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 2 5 

message respecting payment if they still refused to settle accounts. 
On landing I was greatly relieved, therefore, to see Mr. Spieden 
with money on the table at Dr. Bettelheim's house, with the 
purveyor making out his accounts and all in process of amicable 
arrangement. Our men brought up the cash ($150 worth) in 
bundles of $5, or 6,500 each, and natives soon carried it off. 
We had an easy message at the Mayor's. Mr. Contee had been 
at his office before, and he received us out of the door, invited 
us in, was much interested in the presents, so far as they could 
be seen, and altogether the meeting was one of the pleasantest 
we have had. Nothing was said of payments, but they were 
told that we intended to bring some cattle and sheep ashore and 
pasture them in the inclosure near Bettelheim's house, and 
wanted the 200 boards to make a fence. Many excuses were 
offered respecting the boards — that they were difficult to get, as 
most of them came from Japan or Tuchara, and only then as 
dunnage or to fill up the rice junks. I told them that I had 
seen too many houses boarded inside as well ^s out, and too 
many pit-saws going to think they had few boards. He then 
asked who was to look after the cattle and who was to be 
responsible for their lives, on which points we eased his anxiety, 
but he made no objection to their being brought ashore to that 
place. Inquiries were made as to where the two ships were 
going, and why ; we also wished to know the manner of their 
cultivation of tobacco, and were promised some seed. After 
remaining more than an hour in pleasant chat we wished health 
to the Regent and all high functionaries on behalf of the Com- 
modore and took our departure, much better pleased than if we 
had been obliged to threaten them. All accounts having been 
settled, the pursers all returned aboard, and we may hope the 
authorities will make no more opposition. In fact, it is not easy 
to explain the reason for refusing payment. I suppose that, as 
they themselves exact the supplies, they lose nothing by their 
gifts, but the people bear it all, while they deem themselves in 
the safest position with respect to their real rulers by adhering 



26 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

to the letter of the law and considering all ships as their guests. 
I look upon Lewchew as a dependency of Satzuma, (rather than 
subj'ect to Japan) by whose prince it was conquered entirely in 
the 17th century, 1609.* That principality monopolizes the 
trade and manages the relations and policy of the island, allow- 
ing the voyage of homage to Fuhchau every year to keep up a 
profitable trade and a shadow of independence among the 
natives. The power is wielded by the gentry whom long usage 
has formed into a caste, and they sway the timid, defenseless 
people by a system of espionage which spreads distrust and fear 
of others over the whole community. The gentry maintain the 
spies and are the depositories of all learning, education and office, 
doing nothing to elevate or improve their serfs. Apparently, 
their sway is very mild, for no swords in the hands of soldiers 
nor even whips in the hands of guards are seen in the streets, 
but it is because all resistance has ceased, and a motion of a fan 
or a wink is as effectual as a blow. Fear of an informer doubt- 
less carries obedience to needless lengths, such as running away 
from the markets when a foreigner appears, but perhaps most of 
the market-people being women more satisfactorily accounts for 
this, and they do not now run as they did at first. There is 
nothing which so destroys the self respect of the human soul as 
a system of surveillance and responsibility — constantly on the 
lookout that another's conduct does not involve one's self, con- 
stantly feeling that one's actions are all spied out and may be 
reported for punishment, you are hampered and meshed like a 
fish in a net and fear to move. If the people even knew their 
rights they have no power to assert them, and the only hope 
lies in teaching all classes the baneful effects of so unnatural a 
system. Whether the authorities are likely to be punished in 
any way for their finally coming to our demands or not, they 
certainly must see that we have no present intention of inter- 
fering in their internal affairs ; but it is ' likely that a change in 
their foreign policy will materially influence their internal system, 
* See Klaproth's Sankokf isoii ran to sets, p. 177. (Note by author .J 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 2^ 

Seeing how the two are blended, and the obvious advantages of 
changing the relation of host and guest for that of seller and 
buyer when a squadron of [,500 men come must be apparent, 
even to the lowest coolie in port. Many signs of a change are 
already apparent. 

In the evening I went aboard one of the Japanese j'unks, 
where we were rather endured than received ; there were 22 
men, and they had been fifteen days from Kagosima. They 
gave us no tea or pipes, and refused to sell Mr. Bittinger a box 
he was earnest to buy for a knife. The rudder post was hauled 
up and lay horizontally in the cabin ; it was about three feet in 
diameter. The room was kept clean and most of the cargo was 
landed. Some of the Lewchewan stchibang followed us aboard 
— imps of oppression who may some day get roughly handled 
for their impertinence. On returning to our boat the captain 
handed back a handkerchief I had previously given him. 

On reaching the steamer I found that the Regent had made 
his return presents of paper, cloth, tobacco, saki, fans, pipes, etc., 
a trumpery assortment with only a io-w pieces of lackered ware. 

Saturday , June nth. — On passage to the Bonins.* 

On Thursday morning we got under way with the " Sara- 
toga " in tow and moved out of the harbor in fine style, leaving 
the " Mississippi " and " Supply " in port. Several persons were 
left ashore, among whom were Mr. Brown and Mr. Draper, the 
daguerrian and telegraph artists ; they took up their lodgings in 
the house at Tumai. The house on the hilltop near Dr. 
Bettelheim's was also occupied by sending some cattle and 
sheep on shore thereabouts to pasture and be taken care of, as 
the Mayor was informed. There is not much to do now with 
the Lewchewans, in an official manner, but everything in show- 
ing them the equitable and firmly just conduct proper in our 
dealings with them, and leading them to see that it is for their 
interest and peace to treat us with courtesy. Thus far things 
have gone on as favorably as I expected, and when the native 
- * Ogasawara-jima, called Munin-to by the Japanese. , 



28 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

authorities come to see that we mean what we say, they will, I 
hope, refrain from their own subterfuges and treat us fairly. 

Today the poor old teacher was committed to the sea. 
He did not recruit at all after reaching Napa in the " Saratoga," 
and tho' every care was taken of him on board the flagship, a 
good room and nourishing food provided, he did not recover 
his spirits or appetite. He had brought all the apparatus with 
him for smoking opium, tho' he constantly asserted that he had 
none of the drug with him. I would not let him smoke, but he 
took it in some cinnabar-colored pills which he called |^ ^ ;^, 
or nourishing-life pills, and took in large doses. He gradually 
failed in mind and body, and the last thing he did for me was to 
mark the two pictures sent to the two Treasurers on Wednes- 
day ; after that he had hardly mind enough to answer a question. 
He presented a sad spectacle of ghastly emaciation, mumbling 
and talking and moaning, now about home, and now about 
money. I told him a week ago that I did not think he would 
ever recover and tried to direct his attention to the Savior, of 
whose salvation he was not ignorant ; but he paid little heed to 
it, and spoke of it himself none at all. I fear his heart was 
never touched with a sense of his sinfulness. He died last night 
about eleven o'clock of inanition and exhaustion of the nervous 
system, delirious for twenty-four hours previous. He was 
bound up in his mat just as he lay in bed, and then sewed up in 
canvas. A jar of opium prepared for smoking and all the pills 
he had, with a quantity of cakes, sweetmeats, etc., were thrown 
overboard, and his opium pipe was buried with him ; he must 
have spent $15 to $i8 for opium and other things injurious to 
him, and I hardly had two days' service ont of him the whole 
time. I never saw an opium smoker die before, and had no 
idea that the use of this drug so enfeebled the nervous system 
and rendered the powers of mind so weak and the whole man 
so foolish. He was a shocking sight, a melancholy ruin. 

Tuesday, June i^th. — Port Lloyd. 

After a passage of five days over the most sunny seas and 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 29 

witli the pleasantest accompaniments of breeze, temperature and 
progress, we anchored here this morning. The land looks 
native and as if the soil was tolerably productive, for the vegeta- 
tion covers the hilltops, some of which are fully 1500 feet high. 
A Hawaiian — a youth born on the island came off to pilot us 
in if needed, and about nine o'clock we anchored, almost land- 
locked, and deep water in some places near the rocks. During 
the day parties were made up for exploring the island to-morrow, 
but I declined to join them in the ascent of these steep hills lest 
I should not keep up. In the evening we rambled along the 
beach and visited three houses which presented a good degree 
of comfort in their internal arrangements ; one of them was 
occupied by a Portuguese who had lived here twenty-one years 
and has had ten children, only one (our pilot erewhile) of whom 
now lives with him. A daughter of his was forcibly carried off 
two years ago by some pirates from Hongkong on their way to 
California. 

Wednesday, June i^tJi, — Port Lloyd. 

Two parties under Mr. Taylor* and Dr. Fahs left early 
this morning to explore. I went ashore about nine o'clock and, 
with Mr. Patterson, went up some of the low hills near the 
dwellings. All these >hills had been burnt over not long ago, 
perhaps to cover the soil with a manure of ashes ; a growth of 
Carex and Scirpus now covered them, mixed with shrubs, all 
growing in the richest soil. The rock is everywhere of trap 
formation, containing veins of greenstone running thro' it and 
nodules of iron-stone, the outer surface of which last is often 
blistered, as if it had been simmered before a fire ; the presence 
of sulphur has caused this rock to decompose rapidly, and this 
has assisted greatly to produce the rich soil. Many parts of 
the soft ground were riddled with crabs' holes, some of them 
large enough for weasels'. 

The vegetation is decidedly tropical, which is rather un- 

* Bayard Taylor, whose account of this excursion appears in the Narrative, 
pp. 204-209. 



30 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

expected in a place the latitude of Wanchau-fu and only 1,200 
miles east of Ningpo. Here two species of palm, one of them 
producing a kind of cocoa-nut, the tree-fern, the plantain, papaya, 
sugar-cane and pandanus, all show the tropical affinities of the 
flora. I found two beautiful species of Hibiscus, a Sida, of 
which the berry is good eating, a fern or two and a kind of 
iuniper. Most of the plants are new to me, but the variety is 
small. Few gynandrous or syngenesious plants came under my 
eye. In the damp or winter months there is probably more 
variety of flowering plants in the underbrush than at this season. 
Few mosses or ferns appeared, the ground being grassy and dry. 
Seaweed is not plenty, and the species resemble moss, covering 
the stones at high water. 

The crabs are most abundant, running over the ground 
and covering the pools in the ravines by the hundreds. They 
form a distinctive feature of the island, especially in the woody 
parts ; some of them are two and a half inches square on the 
carapace ; along the shore the hermit crab is paramount, only a 
few others running about the rocks. In the sands a kind of 
Portumnus (?) digs holes, and at low tide one can hear them 
snapping their mandibles with a curious, clicking sound. 

Few insects are seen ; a butterfly, a grasshopper, ants and 
sandflies, or something of the sort, comprise my list. These last 
are found in the dry, decomposed ground in the woods, and are 
exceedingly agile. One lizard ran across my path, brown, 
spotted, four inches long. A species of Periopthalmus was 
caught skipping over the rocks. The dorsal extends the whole 
back, the false pectorals apparently disjoined, but proceeding 
from the same bone ; skin dark brown, black spots, eyes pro- 
jecting and approaching ; belly light brown. While walking 
over the sands which was marked into ripples by the surf, so 
hard as to resist my weight, I was led to infer that the solidifica- 
tion of these ripples into rock, so that the layers can be easily 
separated into thin pieces showing plainly the original ripplings, 
is not so very surprising ; for at this time these marks were even 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 3 1 

more solid than the shells lying on them. Probably a succes- 
sion of these ripples, one above another, could even now be 
detected a few feet below the surface if a large section could be 
removed and partially indurated enow to show the stratification. 
The deposits on this soft sand are very slowly made, the silt 
coming from the comminuted cliffs brought down by the rains. 

The shells are not numerous, but a large variety is pro- 
duced in or near the coral reefs, for the surf has brought up 
many species ; the nerita, voluta, chiton, ostica, patella and murex 
have their representatives growing at low water, attached to the 
rocks. The coral appears very beautiful as one slowly floats 
over it, and the variety is considerable ; echinei are common and 
hundreds of biche de-mer, black and round, a foot to eight 
inches long, lie scattered over the bottom ; this species is not 
eaten by the Chinese. Some ray, called stingaree, force them- 
selves over the coral ; two were caught in the net, of a plain 
brown, with a single spine in his whip-like tail, measuring nearly 
one and one-third feet square ; their mode of swimming is by an 
undulating, flopping and rapid movement of the tail. It is a 
mystery to me how the spine is used for attack or defense. 

There are now thirty-nine persons on the island. Mr. 
Savary, an American from Massachusetts has lived here twenty- 
three years ; two others for twenty-one years. Marquesans and 
Hawaiians are here, most of the females being of the latter. 
The inhabitants live peaceably with each other, but no one 
exercises any authority, and at times they are much annoyed by 
sailors. Each one shares seed with others, so that they all have 
much the same variety of vegetables. Turtle furnishes their 
chief meat, and this they salt down to exchange for provisions 
out of whalers. Indian corn, muskmelons, watermelons, sweet 
and Irish potatoes, taro, beans, onions and bananas are among 
the vegetables. Goats, hogs, poultry, ducks and geese are 
reared. 

Thursday, fune i6th. — The Commodore and a large party 
went off to Buckland Island on a fishing and discovery picnic, 



32 A JOURNAL OF THE PEKRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

taking with them the cattle and sheep brought from Shang- 
hai, which were intended to be left here for increase. The 
cattle were put ashore at Williams' bay on the northwest side of 
Peel Island, where they will find food and not overrun the 
plantations of the inhabitants on this side. The sheep and goats 
were landed on Stapleton Island, which is already covered with 
goats, the progeny of some left there by Beechy or some other 
voyager. The hogs have possession of Buckland Island, here 
usually called Hog Island. I was invited to go with this party 
with the stipulation of remaining out all night, but most of them 
came back at evening. 

In the afternoon I went to see a cave at the entrance of the 
harbor, formed by the dropping down of the friable trap rock ; 
no coral was seen hereabouts growing out of the sunlight, nor 
many moUusks clinging to the water-edge rocks, I suspect the 
direct and constant rays of the sun are necessary to the marine 
products. The opening is supported in front by a mass of rock, 
around which the water flows ; it is perhaps 150 feet high to the 
peak, and the water slowly percolates through, causing patches 
of rock to fall off. A shock of an earthquake would loosen 
large masses. Passing along in the boat, the coral appeared 
exceedingly beautiful thro' the limpid water ; patches of brain 
(branching and a little flat) coral appeared to succeed each 
other ; specimens of blue among the white made both look 
prettier, and where the branching sort covered the bottom, the 
resemblance to a tiny forest was remarkable. Hundreds of red 
echenei, with long rays, dark purple, five toothed, three inch 
diameter, were seen in some places and then disappeared, 
attracted probably by the food. The biche-de-mer always lay 
on the sand, the sea-eggs or echinus on the coral. In one cavity 
a diodon was seen cravv'ling over the bottom and was soon con- 
veyed to our boat ; the mode of inflating his body to cause the 
spines to proj'ect seems to be by sucking In a large quantity of 
water, for this one gradually shriveled as he ejected the water : 
yet I ani told that the fish can be irritated to swell up when 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 33 

recently caught, in which case, the body can also be inflated 
with air. It is a repulsive fish and seems uncommon in this 
place. Its garniture of spines renders it, as in the case of the 
porcupine, pretty safe against its enemies, but a shark will eat 
almost anything when hungry. This specimen was ten inches 
long, dark brown patches on the back over a speckled yellowish- 
gray ground ; the belly whitish. 

The party returned from their trip lo the other islands 
giving the same report of steep hills and a few level places near 
the seaside. A tree was found which the carpenter thought was 
mahogany. A palm having an edible top, tasting like the 
cabbage-palm, was common on one side ; in fact, I should not 
wonder if there were several species of palm here, and that 
cocoanuts would grow, if brought and planted along the beach. 
Some enterprising Chinese would soon collect a cargo of fan 
leaves, if left here a month with a part)^, the fan-leaf palm being 
plenty ; it is used as thatch. 

Friday, June lyth. — Port Lloyd. 

Mr. Savary, the oldest resident here, is from Bradford in 
Massachusetts, and was one of five men who, with a number of 
Hawaiian men and women, were sent to colonize this island by 
Mr. Charlton, then the British Consul at Oahu ; Mr. Chapin of 
Boston and Mr. Millichamp, an Englishman, also were in the 
party ; the former is dead, and the latter now lives in Guam, so 
that Mr. Savary is in some sort the proprietor. No authority 
is exerted by him or any other person, however, and the resid- 
ents live on the best terms with each other, cultivating friendly 
relations with each other and acknowledging certain understood 
rules in respect to the capture of turtle or fish, and cultivation of 
ground. Mr. Mottley, Webb and Collins are Englishmen living 
here, and John Bravo, a Portuguese ; the last named has had ten 
children, and appears an enterprising man in managing his farm. 
The colonizing of this island thro' Charlton's agency shows that 
the English were early alive to the importance of the position, 
and he may have started the enterprise at Captain Beechey's 



34 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

suggestion after the visit of the latter in 1827. I believe Com- 
modore Perry has exercised some rights of sovereignty since 
his arrival, appointing Savary navy agent, taking up land and 
making it out, and doing what seemed to him good. If the 
English would govern the island and let the coal depot be 
managed by the steam company, without taxation, the supre- 
macy and interests of the two parties would be amicably 
managed. The position is certainly eligible for a stopping place 
in crossing between the Hawaiian Islands and Shanghai, far 
better than any islet we yet know of along the Japanese coast. 
It could be made to furnish a large supply of vegetables, and 
labor could be brought from China for building wharves, etc. 

A record is kept of all arrivals and departures at the port, 
and a journal of notable events, by Mr. Savary. The number 
of whalers which have visited and are expected to visit the place 
this season is greater than in any year previous ; two have 
appeared in the ofifing while we have been here, one of whom 
sent in a boat for supplies to-day. The establishment of a coal 
depot here would damage it as a port of supplies to whalers 
whose captains are afraid of losing their men at large ports. 
However, they could go down southwest to Bailey Island, 
where five persons moved from this place some twenty months 
ago and began a settlement. Comparing the society now and 
the records of former navigators, there is an improvement in 
some respects. The misdeeds of runaway sailors are very 
vexatious and probably cause all the troubles ; one of the " Sara- 
toga's " men deserted yesterday and has not been recovered, a 
gain of over $200 to Uncle Sam. Ten or twelve of these 
characters left a few weeks ago, much to the relief of the settle- 
ment. 

The scenery of this group is imposing, the peaks rising 
sheer up into steep points which show their origin. One of the 
exploring parties suddenly found itself on the brink of a cliff 
fully 500 feet down. Most of them are susceptible of a growth 
of grass and vines, but not one acre in a hundred can be culti- 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 35 

vated. From the deck of the " Saratoga " one summit behind 
John Bravo's house bore so strong a resemblance to a lion's 
head and shoulders that we said " John Bull must have the 
claim to prior possession as his seal was on the mountains." 

Many species of shells might be collected in a short time if 
one would search and drag for them. Species of Area, Chama 
of large size, Cyprea, Conus, Patella, Nerita, Chiton, Anomia, 
etc., are frequent ; few oysters and not many land or lacustrine 
species. Fish are plentiful, but the inhabitants find turtle to be 
more profitable game ; species of Diodon, Balistes, Serranus, 
Tetrodon, Shark, Ray, MuUus and Perca have been seen, some 
of them abundantly. Crawfish, some of them three and a half 
feet long, are common ; two species were brought us. 

One of the pleasantest sails I have had was taken this 
evening after sunset ; Mr. Madigan and I took a canoe and 
paddled to Mr. Savary's where we remained an hour. The row 
over the smooth water, in a bright moonlight which made a 
beautiful contrast of shade and moonshine along the banks and 
thro' the harbor, was pleasing to me, only recently from the 
hot bricks of Canton, and I enjoyed it greatly. All these 
canoes are hollowed from single trees, with a bulwark added to 
the wale and furnished with outriggers and sails ; for the uses of 
the islanders they are better than a boat and are easily managed 
by one person. 

Sattirday , June \%th. — Taking the " Saratoga " in tow, the 
" Susquehanna " steamed her way out of the harbor this morn- 
ing, the same fair weather attending us which we have had for 
the last decade. The Bonins were soon lost to sight, and no 
very dear memories left behind, if the complaints of the officers 
respecting bad washing at high prices and few provisions at ex- 
travagant rates could be deemed an index. However, the peo- 
ple did their best at washing and sold us what they had, 
doubtless taking advantage of the rare chance of a ship of war 
to make the most ; but they would be blamed anyhow, let them 
do what they might. 



36 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

In the afternoon the island of Rozario, or Disappointment 
Island, was passed ; a low coral island, probably once two 
islets, and now joined by a single beach of coral fragments, 
The surf beat up fully thirty feet high as we passed ; the highest 
point of the island was hardly fifty feet high. Reefs defended 
it wherever we could see it. 

Wednesday, June 22nd. — Our pleasant southwest monsoon 
weather still continues, and w^e get along six to seven knots an 
hour over smooth seas, having occasionally a favorable slant of 
wind, so that the sails can be set. At noon we passed within 
five miles of Borodino Island on the north of us, a low, coral 
island not over a hundred feet above seawater and covered with 
vegetables and trees ; it consists of two islets, the largest five or 
six miles long ; the smallest a mile, lying northeast of it. The 
surf broke over the reefs along the whole length of it, and there 
is probably no very safe anchorage near the shore, and so far as 
could be ascertained no inhabitants either, but no conclusions 
could be safely drawn from such a view. It lies in such a 
direction from Lewchew that it is not unlikely that the inhabit- 
ants have been to it, and may still cultivate it. A good survey 
of the two would be well worthy of being made, not only to 
ascertain its capabilities for sustaining a population, but to see if 
there is any shelter there for a vessel in distress. It is the only 
land between Lewchew and the Bonin's on which any person 
could find retreat, or resort to in case of shipwreck, with any 
hope of sustaining life. 

Thursday, June 2},rd. — We anchored at Napa about five 
o'clock p.m., and found that the " Plymouth " only had arrived. 

Dr. Bettelheim's presence was soon announced on board, 
but he had not much to communicate. He thinks the northern 
part of the island ought to be searched for coal ; I think there 
would be as much chance for finding gold as coal in this islet, 
and who is to dig it ? After he had gone, two officials from the 
mayor of Napa came to hand in his card to the Commodore. 
They were desirous to ascertain w^iere we had been, but their 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 3/ 

knowledge of the world around them is too limited to know 
even where the Bonins are situated. 

I have been reading an abstract of Levyssohn's recent 
publication on Japan,* in which he endeavors to excuse Dutch 
servility and Japanese seclusion, showing by the way that there 
is very little prospect of a successful termination to this Ameri- 
can attempt to open trade and intercourse with the islanders. 
However, an attempt must be made some day or other, and 
until the temper of the government and people is ascertained in 
view of a stern demand from abroad, how is any course of 
action to be marked out ? The opperhoofd's views are as con- 
tracted as the little island of Desima where he has resided ; no 
reference to the general interests of humanity, to the pitiable 
heathenism of the Japanese and their ignorance of the revealed 
will and laws of their Maker, to extension of intercourse and 
consequent elevation of character, or to the diffusion of true 
Christianity among them, is to be found in his pages. It is, to 
my mind, a fair example of the influence of sordid trade on the 
human heart. 

Friday, June 24///. — I was engaged during the morning 
in making out cards to send to the leading officers of the go- 
vernment to dine on the flagship on Tuesday next — the prince, 
the Regent, three Treasurers and mayor of Napa — telling them 
in oriental style that we " had prepared goblets and awaited the 
light of their presence " at four p.m. I took them to the 
mayor's office where I learned that it would be necessary to 
change the Regent's card, the old one having been made to 
resign, or been deposed, while we were absent. One is inclined 
to speculate as to our agency in the degradation of this imbecile 
man ; the last paper he brought aboard ship on the 4th, much 
to the surprise of all, intimated to Perry that he (Perry) had his 
fate in his hand, that he could not allow us to go to the palace, 
alleging, however, only the ilhiess of the Queen Dowager and 
the commands he had received from the ^ ^ " sovereign of 

* Bladen over Japan. 'Sgraven Hage, 1852. 



38 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITIOfJ TO JAPAN. 

the land " to entertain the American Commodore at his own 
official residence ; then, his very undignified act of remaining out 
in the street of Shui to coax or invite us into his house may 
have been a last effort to avert his probable fate and show that 
he had done all he could to prevent the entrance to the palace. 
However, no change could introduce a greater non-entity than 
this man seems to be, for he is the most of a child of any officer 
we have had intercourse with. Nor can one feel much sympathy 
foremen who put themselves at the beginning in an attitude of 
mistrust, reserve and distance, refusing that intercourse which 
unfettered humanity would take and deriving no benefit them- 
selves from this churlishness ; such rulers as these curse them- 
selves and their people. 

Be this as it may, some causes have overthrown the Regent, 
and a new man may be free to take a new course. The card to 
the prince was at first declined on the ground that he could not 
come, but I would not hear to the excuse ; he is said to be 
twelve years old, but why they style him ^i;; •^, or heir ap- 
parent, I do not know, if it be true that the father is dead. 

In this office of the mayor's is a tablet showing the influence 
of Confucius' maxims : # j^ ^ ^ ;^ it ^> 5^ ^ jtb- Filial 
duty and brotherly love : the doctrine of Yau and Shun are 
nothing but these two. The mayor was desirous of ascertaining 
when we were going away and where Perry had been ; to the 
first I pleaded ignorance, and endeavored to answer the second 
as well as I could, which was not easy without a map. Perhaps 
my answers would hasten the dispatch of the junk lying ofl the 
Roads, and this may explain their earnestness. Ichirazichi 
shows great tact in the way he manages his questions, and T 
suspect his influence is proportional to his parts. 

In the evening I went around to the house in Tumai, and 
found that it had been made much more comfortable than the 
other could ever have been made, for it is larger, has a better 
yard, and is cooler. The other is now actually occupied as a 
rchool-room, as we ascertained by going into it, where we found 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 39 

twenty-eight lads conning over a Japanese edition of the works 
of Mencius, just as if they had been in China, squatting about 
on their haunches or jumping around the room. Even with all 
their childish glee, there was the same serious air which seems 
innate to a Lewchewan ; Mr. Spieden says he has only once 
seen the people laugh heartily, and that was when they felt the 
shock of a galvanic battery on board the " Mississippi." 

Rambling over the hills back of Tumai reminded me of the 
walk which we took in 1837 (having Mrs. King and Captain 
IngersoU in company) in these parts, tho' I am not able to recall 
the locality at all. We went up to- a Buddhist temple to see 
what could be in the building and found a party of priests 
sipping tea and smoking ; a sacrifice of cooked dishes was spread 
over the main room, arranged on low tables in front of the idols, 
having lamps burning. The party gave us a cold reception, 
motioning us out of the house and refusing us an entrance into 
the temple ; indeed we could hardly get a drink of water and 
did not tarry long. The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis* was in full 
flower in the yard, which was kept neatly. Almost all these 
temples, I am told, have an adjoining building for the entertain- 
ment of guests and travelers, who are thus enabled to house 
themselves without incommoding the priests. The location of 
this establishment is very pleasant, and everything around it was 
riant and peaceful. May God in his mercy soon change the 
sullen superstition of the inmates to a joyful faith in his Son. 

Saturday, Jtuie 2^th. — Most of the day was spent on board 
the " Supply " where I went in the morning to go with Dr. 
Wilson and examine coral beds, but found the tide so high that 
we had to wait till afternoon. On reaching the coral reefs we 
had some difficulty in keeping the boat easy, but by the men 
getting overboard many pretty specimens w-ere obtained of 
madrepores and other sorts, with two kinds of echinus. 
Hundreds of the blue coral fish were flying from one hole to 
another, their bright skins alternately showing blue and green 

* The " shoe-black plant " of Java. 



40 A JOURNAL OF THE PEKRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

as the light was reflected from them. We came across one 
agile fish which seemed to walk along the bottom, and was 
perhaps a siren. We carried the coral ashore to bleach it in 
the sun near Dr. Bettelheim's house ; at this house a large num- 
ber of natives were assembled, looking with some interest at a 
pile of condemned biscuit sent ashore, afraid to touch or take it 
in presence of their overseers. 

The people have a pretty mode of planting trailing plants 
to run along the top of the walls around their houses, both to 
mat them firmly and raise a defense against climbers. Bastard 
banian, cacti, bamboos, orangines (Murraya) and a sort of ivy 
have all been seen. 

In a funeral procession which passed near us the bearers of 
inscriptions to propitiate the gods of the way took the lead, then 
a company of well-dressed men, all clad in brownish white 
dresses, and then the male mourners blubbering and crying as 
they stumbled along, half borne up by assistants. The coffin 
was inclosed in a bier formed of a tray and a cover which com- 
pletely concealed it ; the whole was red, and was borne by four 
men who showed that their burden was not a light one. After 
the bier came the female mourners, perhaps thirty in all, some 
of them friends supporting the crying, wailing women, and all 
protected from the crowd by men carrying a net on each side 
stretched on poles. There was no music, and the red bier was 
another deviation from Chinese custom.. The graves in this 
vicinity are substantial erections in the same general style as the 
Chinese tombs about Canton, resembling a letter ii, or else an 
opening into the rock thro' which the coffin is thrust into a 
recess and then closed with masonry. Considerable labor has 
been laid out in scraping the ledges in many cases to make a face 
for the tomb, or in building a \A'all to inclose a small area in its 
front. No inscriptions have been seen on any tombs, in which 
they differ from Chinese, but I suspect their sepulchral rites 
partake more of Japanese customs than Chinese. 

Sunday, June 26lh. — Altho' it was the Sabbath, Ichirazi- 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 4 1 

chi came off to the ship to intimate the acceptance of the invita- 
tion to dine with the Commodore on Tuesday. He made 
inquiries where we had been while absent, and I got an India- 
rubber globe to show him the position of the Bonins with respect 
to the United States, China, and his own country, and strongly 
impressed it on him that his government must expect to have 
many visitors coming into their ports, and the sooner they were 
treated properly and supplied with what they needed, the better 
it would be for this country. He wished to know why boats 
had gone up to Port Melville, as letters had come down from 
Uting stating the arrival of boats there last evening. I told him 
they were sent to survey the harbor and would return in two 
days ; and that we intended to go everywhere on their coasts 
examining the shores, so that ships might know where to anchor. 
In respect to everything relating to foreign intercourse and the 
courtesy due to ships, I give these officials no comfort or hope 
of a better time coming ; they are now learning their duty in 
the gentlest manner, and must understand that we are in earnest. 
The report that Shang Ta-mu has ripped himself up is gaining 
ground, and excites no little displeasure among some as one of 
the sad results of our course ; but I have great doubts about it 
and, if it were so, the execrable laws which compel such a step 
are more to blame, in my view, than we are who had no idea of 
such a contingency. 

Dr. Bettelheim came aboard after his service was over in 
the " Plymouth " and made himself somewhat dubious by the 
way in which he ^poke of the succession to the Regency and the 
fate of the old one. This same Dr. Bettelheim contrives to heap 
a deal of ill-will and contempt up against himself by his conduct. 

Monday, June 2'/ih. — In the evening rambled over the reefs 
with Mr. Jones collecting fish and mollusks, all of which were 
drowned in my jar by mistake. In the night the crew of the 
" Mississippi " gave a theatrical performance to the squadron. 
The Commodore rather favors these things, saying that their effect 
is to keep the crews in good spirits ; the men are pleased enough 



42 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

to have time given them to learn their parts and paint the 
scenery, a sort of shirking their work which others do not like. 

Tuesday, June iZtJi. — The arrival of the " Caprice " this 
morning gave unwonted stir to our little fleet, anQ the letters, 
parcels, stores, etc , were soon scattered among their respective 
owners, a Chinese assistant to take the place of my old man 
Sieh and a servant boy, Alai, to attend on me, falling to my 
share. They both talk the dialect of Shanghai, and I am likely 
to become expert in the court dialect before I get home, as 
this teacher needs a deal of explanation. I was glad to see 
Captain Maury look so well and think he has given satisfaction. 

Toward noon the Commodore began to fidget concerning 
the arriv^al of his guests and, as the rain came down briskly, it 
was in a measure doubtful ; the boats were sent according to 
promise for them, but Bettelheim's fears added to the uncertain 
state of the weather induced him to send us both off also. We 
met them all aboard the two cutters and had our row in the rain 
for nothing ; Bettelheim was cross, too, because the Regent was 
ahead of him, and hallooed to the boats in vain, making me wish 
I was out of his company. 

The new Regent, Shang Hiung-hium f^J ^ ^, two of the 
Treasurers and the mayor of Napa, with many ti-fu, or subordi- 
nates, in all eighteen or so, came off. Captain Buchanan took 
some of them over the ship and into the engine room, and I 
went with others elsewhere, but there was no time to show 
them much, as Perry hurried all down to the table. He 
seated the Regent and a Treasurer on his right and left ; 
the other two were at the opposite. The Regent has a 
family likeness to the former, and acted in the same still, 
hushed manner, exhibiting more uneasiness and constantly 
glancing here and there as if afraid of treachery. The others 
enjoyed their dinner and wine, tasting of all and clearing their 
plates often. The Regent thanked the Commodore for the 
cattle and promised to rear them ; he was further promised 
some seeds from the United States to distribute among the 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 43 

people. He had brought some saki and sweetmeats off himself, 
which were laid on the table too. While dining many sorts of 
spirits were drunk, and Bettelheim evidently acted as if under 
their influence, getting up and sitting down, talking and gesticu- 
lating in a strange way. I wish more pains had been taken t© 
inform these officers than to guzzle them, but darkness was 
coming on and no time for aught but eating. The Regent rose 
to leave two or three times, but was motioned down as often, 
his host perhaps forgetting that at Shui he left long before the 
last course and had not the same excuse of night coming on. 
The Regent was told that we were going to Japan soon, and 
that other ships were coming here, and we hoped friendly inter- 
course would spring up. The health of the guests and their 
country was drunk, in which they joined, but proposed nothing 
themselves ; indeed, nothing could interest or please the Regent 
except to get off. The rain came down so fast that after the 
guests were on deck they could not go, and went into Captain 
Buchanan's cabin to rest awhile. The marines were marshalled 
and the band played, so that nothing was wanting to show them 
respect ; I suspect the attendants got very little to eat, though 
their eyes and ears were filled with sights and music. I tried 
to ascertain from the interpreter whether the old Regent was in 
Shui, but had no chance ; Bettelheim thought he was imprisoned 
or banished, and increased the dislike of some to him by the 
smirk with which he told of the poor man's fate— a fate which I 
think is doubtful. I don't much wonder at his feelings, how- 
ever ; living here for so many years and deprived of common 
comforts through this man's means, it is not surprising that he 
should wish a change of rulers. The party of Lewchewans 
left at sunset, hut he remained to try to settle accounts with the 
purser or caterers, and nearly got a discharge from the ship by 
accusing the officers of cheating him. It is strange to hear the 
dislike felt against him by the squadron, yet I can explain it 
mostly without deeming him to be a scoundrel as others do. 

Wednesday June 2gth. — Dined with Wayne and Maury in the 



44 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

" Caprice," and then took a walk to Shui with the latter, much 
to his delight, as he had not been ashore before, and we really had 
a pleasant walk through the charming country. We went over 
to Wi-dumai, the embowered village, and returned along the 
«easide hilltops from which the view was the one McLeod 
describes,* a mixture of sea and shore, copse and wood, culti- 
vated patches of many colors checking the whole, and graves 
of solid masonry placed in grassy hillsides or surrounded with 
solid stone walls. The palace grounds at Shui indicate much 
taste, and the rivulet which runs by Tumai is there collected 
into a pool of one quarter of a square mile or so, affording many 
conveniences to the people. We met the tallow tree, mulberry, 
lotus and taro, cultivated, but not to great extent. The people 
ran from us, and one left a pail of cool water in the streets for 
our enjoyment. The strata of limestone is lost sight of as one 
ascends to Shui, where granite alternates with it. 

When we spoke to people this evening they would put 
their fingers in their ears — a new device to hinder intercourse, 
which those who did it rather laughed at, for we saw a lurking 
smile on the faces of several at the grimaces they were told to 
make. 

Thursday, June 2,0th. — Coaling ship all day, which makes 
the vessel uncomfortable in spite of all the precautions taken. The 
" Brenda " which came in Tuesday is discharging her load into 
the " Mississippi," and every preparation naking for a start. 
The "Supply" is to remain, keep possession of the house at 
Tumai, and the " Caprice " is to remain at Shanghai just long 
enough to be back here by August ist. 

I have been busy translating the President's letter, and find 
my Chinese assistant a mere office copyist, one who has had but 
little reading and is not quick at catching my meaning. Added 
to this, his pronunciation differs from mine considerably, so 
that we are frequently thrown off from catching the meaning. 
He is good-natured and patient, in which qualities I can learn. 

* Voyage of the " Alceste " to the Yellow Sea. London, 1817. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 45 

Fiiday, Jnly \st. — Went ashore this morning to carry a 
lot of seeds to the mayor's office for the Regent. I had a long 
talk while there, chiefly to answer a petition received from the 
Regent the day before through the mayor who came on board the 
flagship to present and urge it himself. The purport of this paper 
was that the Regent requested Commodore Peny to send back 
two Chinese who had been sent over from Shanghai in the 
"Brenda" to Dr. Bettelheim as assistants, as they were not wanted. 
I told the officers that we had no hand in bringing them over, 
that Dr. Bettelheim was an Englishman and these Chinese were 
sent by English officers to him, and that we could do nothing 
in the matter, adding that they had better give up all such ideas 
of preventing people coming to their shores to live if they 
wished to do so, and the sooner they began to treat foreigners 
like friends, allowing them to trade as they pleased, not order- 
ing the people to run from them, or the women to hide them- 
selves, the better they would get along with them. They 
seemed to' understand the matter, but I suspect are not free to 
follow what is advised. The personal position of the Regent 
when he went down into the engine-room, urged on by Captain 
Buchanan and terrified at the ponderous machinery before him, 
is not unlike his political position now ; pressed on either side by 
fear of China and Japan, urged to change by what they begin 
to see is a power more irresistible than either, and yet not see- 
ing their way to do so very clearly, the rulers here deserve 
more consideration than all have given them. I told them that 
henceforth American and other ships would visit them more 
frequently than before and would expect to be well treated. 
We had treated them kindly and expected to get similar returns. 
Ichirazichi was very particular in his inquiries as to what ships 
of the squadron were coming, which was to stay, what force 
was to be out next year, and other questions showing the desire 
to ascertain all our movements. I told him all I knew, and, 
furthermore, thanked him, on behalf of Perry, for building the 
tomb over the body of the boy buried from the " Susquehanna " 



46 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

on June 3rd. He said it was their law so to do, and I then com- 
mended such a custom. The interview was quite long, but I hope 
these officials are beginning to understand that we are friendly if 
they are, and that we mean all we say ; to me, they appear like 
school boys who need some threatenings and coercion for their 
own good, to show them that nations have mutual claims, and 
they must acknowledge these claims. But what can weakness 
and might, such as are here in contact, do ? We are our own 
expounders of what we wish them to consider right ; but they 
are not able to see the matter from the same position. How- 
ever, during the last six weeks a good beginning has been made 
in this instruction, no harm done to them, and proof enough 
given of our intention to take all we wish if they are slow in 
granting it ; they have derived some benefit, I hope, though I 
fear there are more lessons in this political economy still harder. 

At parting I received some pipes and fans, and some tobac- 
co seed, and the good wishes of the company. May the)'- soon 
be made willing to receive the gospel. 

The " Caprice " sailed at noon, sooner than I had supposed 
she would. Dr. Bettelheim has so tired out the officers that 
few showed any warm desire to help him get his letters off, and 
he was too late ; yet there is much to be said on his side too, 
troubled and vexed as he has been with provision bills from 
every mess In the fleet. In the evening went to Wi-dumai for 
the third time ; the people were more friendly than ever, and 
the village looked charming. The scenery hereabouts is truly 
charming from its peaceful character, evidencing so much the. 
quiet character of the inhabitants, and one cannot fail to relish 
it 

Monday, July 4th. — We sailed from Napa on Saturday morn- 
ing, taking the " Saratoga " in tow and followed by the 
"Mississippi" having the "Plymouth" in her rear. We have 
sighted several Islands lying northeast of Lewchew, some of them 
not accurately laid down. To-day has been a holiday, and a salute 
was fi' ed at noon from all the ships ; this outburst of patriotism did. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 47 

well enough to announce to these remote waters the coming of 
the universal Yankee nation to disturb their apathy and long 
ignorance, and I hope there will nothing worse come of our 
visit hitherward than firing some salutes and making a noise. I 
pray the Governor of nations to so prepare the hearts and allay 
the fears of the people we are visiting that this mission to them 
shall be as peaceable as the tenor of President Fillmore's letter 
to the Emperor, and that their sovereign and his advisers may 
be led to entertain these proposals favorably. I am sure that 
the Japanese policy of seclusion is not according to God's plan 
of bringing the nations of the earth to a knowledge of his truth. 
Friday, July Sl/i. — Land appeared on the northwest at 
daylight, thought by some to be C. Totomi, and erelong C. Izu 
was seen ; a chilly air showed the proximity of the mountains 
which appeared in the distance about eight o'clock. Many junks 
were seen near the coast, but not many in our route. The 
islands lying southeast of C. Izu toward Tatsisio Island showed 
less plainly, owing to the morning mist, than when I was here in 
'^y, nor was any symptom of volcanic action seen on one of 
them ; the sea was and has been clear of seaweed and pumice 
until this morning a little was seen of the former. We distanced 
whatever junks were bound up to Yedo, the two steamers going 
through the smooth water at an eight-knot pace, and across the 
Bay of Kawatsu between Capes Izu and Sagami almost no boats 
were seen ; one small craft seeing us coming up rapidly took in 
sail, turned about and pulled away for Vries Island as if its 
existence depended on their haste, doubtless to comfort the 
inhabitants with tidings of the happy luck they had had in not 
being run over last night. Mount Fusi rose In the distance be- 
yond Cape Izu, with its bifurcated peak, accompanied by many 
other less elevated points, but all of them concealed more or less 
with clouds ; the mist concealed the coast and hid us too, pro- 
bably, from the people. The remarkable white rocks along the 
coast were hidden by the same cause, but a few guns which 
were ordered to be scaled made our presence known, perhaps, 



48 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

to those who could not see us. The sight of land diffused a 
feeling of exhilaration through the whole company, and cer- 
tainly the dim idea any of us could have of the results of this 
visit upon us or the Japanese was calculated to excite our 
minds. 

The ships anchored off Uraga about four o'clock, the two 
steamers being nearest the town. Many boats like scows, full 
of athletic, naked boatmen, came near. I asked one well- 
dressed man in the nearest to the gangway to send ashore and 
request a high officer to come off and take a letter to the 
Emperor. While talking a second official came up saying, 
"I talk Dutch," whereupon Mr. Portman told him that the 
Commodore only wanted to have a high officer to come 
aboard ; he then pointed to the highest one there was to take 
such a commission, the second governor in Uraga, standing near 
him, and said that he could not venture to go ashore for any 
other. After some parley these two were admitted and received 
by Lieutenant Contee in Captain Buchanan's cabin and told that 
the President had sent four ships on a peaceful errand to the 
Emperor with a friendly letter, which it was desired to send up 
to Yedo with dispatch by a proper person. No answer was 
given to the questions made about cur course,- men, equipage, 
etc., which they were told national vessels never described. 
The town of Uraga was said to contain 1 800 houses, and it was 
eighteen ri or twenty-seven miles to the capital. These officials 
said they would come to-morrow and receive the letter. The 
" commandant," as he called himself, had writing paper brought 
and made a report in official form of what he had heard, which 
he read to the interpreter, and then took leave. He was enj'oin- 
ed to send all boats away, as we would not go ashore, and they 
were therefore, useless ; this was done to as great a degree as 
one could expect as soon as they went away. Both these men 
were dressed in black crape upper cloaks and a sort of petti- 
coat, having the coat-of-arm^s stamped in white on the arms and 
back ; their long swords were taken off as they sat down. The 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 49 

commandant showed his official insignia, a kind of brass trape- 
zium with a swinging vernier, the rim marked in Chinese 
figures ; he had written rolls containing commands ordering us, 
as I suppose they would all ships to whom they were presented, 
to anchor where we were, but he did not offer to show them, 
as we were already anchored. 

Our position was above that of the " Morrison" or " Colum- 
bus,"* and it commanded the town ; four rockets were sent up 
before anchoring from Kan-na-zaki, the point seen above the town, 
probably to inform the capital. The town lies close to the beach, 
many boats lying off, and appears compact and well built ; four 
forts are near the shore in various places. Most of the boats 
near the ship bore small square flags marked ^^ others [^ 
both said to show they belonged to the government ; no arms 
were seen in the boats, but many well-dressed persons had 
come off to see the ships, and I Vv'as somewhat surprised to see 
them go ashore with so little apparent reluctance when we 
told the commandant to order them away. 

The bay looks as it did sixteen years ago, and the reef of 
rocks is as I remember ; we did not see the town then as we can 
in this position, but the headland around which we saw boats 
come and go so often I remember well. The authorities will 
bring no guns now to drive us "off. The coast line from Caps 
Sagami is well defined — a steep bluff with little beach, well 
wooded and cultivated here and there, trees along the ridge — 
these are the features. No preparations of a hostile nature are 
visible, nor do the forts appear well mounted or manned ; 
nothing is to be seen of all that Bettelheim was so confident of. 

About six o'clock the two officials came back with a third 
and were received as before. They made a long talk about the 
necessity of taking our letter to Nagasaki, the only place where 

* U.S. ship of the line which, under Commodore Biddle, anchored here 
July 20, 1S46, to open negotiations with the Japanese government. The official 
account of the visit appears in the U.S. Senate Documents, 1851-52, Vol. IX. 
(Ex. Doc. No. 59.) 



50 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

Japanese laws allowed its reception, and that the governor on 
shore could not receive it ; we asked them if he took the 
responsibility of refusing it, and siid, that having received our 
orders to go to Yedo from our own ruler, we were as much ob- 
liged to obey as he was ; further, that he had told us on the 
first visit that he would come off to-morrow with a higher 
officer to receive it, and that he must have known the laws as 
well then as he did now, two hours after, and if he did not come 
and get the letter we must take it ashore ourselves. These 
replies rather cut short their long talk, and they agreed to come 
for the letter to-morrow as they went over the side. Before 
leaving the sharp-faced commandant went aft to look at the big 
gun, asked if it was a Paixhan, took its range to the shore, and 
then examined the locks of the guns near the gangway ; he had 
evidently a commission to this effect, but we gave him no 
chance to see much, for we have an object highly desirable to 
effect as peaceably as possible — that our letter be received with- 
out force, so that there be no collision before the government is 
fully aware of our designs. I pray God to order these com- 
bustibles now brought together so that they shall warm each 
other rather than mutually consume one another. 

Friday, July gth. — Watches were kept during the night on 
board as if expecting an enemy ; and on shore the tinkle of a bell 
or gong was distinctly heard duiing the whole night. Several 
boats full of men were lying off shore at daylight, so that it is 
not unlikely that watch and ward were maintained by both sides 
while darkness reigned, and the sight of something like black 
screens along the shore strengthen this idea. About seven 
o'clock the highest officer at Uraga, named Yezaiinon, attended 
by two interpreters and four or five others, came off; a parley 
took place off the gangway as to the obj'ect of the visit, 
rank of the officer, and person they could not see. At last 
Captain Buchanan was ready to receive them in his room, 
three only coming up. When seated, Yezaimon stated that 
he had come aboard to express his official inability to re- 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 5 I 

ceive the letter and, thou^di hi himself was willing to take it, the 
laws of the land forbade it. It was replied that the ships would 
remain here till the letter was received, and that we wished to 
have a suitable person come aboard to take it ; that we had 
been sent by the President to the Emperor and must execute 
our commission which weighed upon us as strictly as their laws 
did on them. Reference being made again to Nagasaki, they 
were told that we were sent here, and because it was near the 
palace. The originals of the letter and credence were then 
shown them, and also the package containing the translations ; 
they showed little or no admiration at them, but wished to know 
the reason for sending four ships to carry such a box and letter 
to the Emperor ; yet whether the reason assigned, " to show 
respect to him," fully met their doubts as to the reason for such 
a force could not be inferred from their looks. A courteous 
offer of water and supplies was made, which was declined, and 
Yezaimon added then that he would not come off again before 
the termination of the four days allowed to send to Yedo, a 
period they themselves set as the time required to send up and 
deliberate upon the matter. They were clearly informed of the. 
meaning of a white flag, and also that visits were out of season 
till after the flags were hoisted in the morning. 

During the whole of this interview the bearing of these 
Japanese was dignified and self-possessed. Yezaimon spoke in 
a clear voice and, through Tatsnoski, who put it into Dutch for 
Mr. Portman, I could make out almost all they said; but it 
would require considerable practice to speak that style, and I 
am not sorry that one of them knows Dutch so much better 
than I do Japanese, for I think intercommunication is likely to 
be more satisfactory. At the close of the interview the inter- 
preter said the officer present was the highest in LJraga, and his 
name Yezaimon ; " What is the name of the captain of this 
ship?" He was told, and nothing could be more polite than 
the whole manner of this incident. While I was on the gang- 
way before they came up one said, " Are you an American?.", 



52 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

— " Yes, to be sure I am," I replied in a tone to intimate some 
surprise at the question, whereat there was a general laugh. 
Tatsnoski then asked my name and I his ; Yezaimon had a 
brocade pattern of drawers, but a beautiful black gauze j'acket, 
a kami-shiino, I suppose they call it. His crest was on his 
lackered hat also ; the boatmen had a blue and white striped 
livery coat, and looked more decent than the naked fellows 
yesterday. A flag with ^ marked on it was explained to 
denote his being of the third rank. Among his attendants was 
one red-cheeked, girlish looking young man of prepossessing 
features. A large buccina was taken out of a box, adorned 
with tassels and having a brass at the vertex, but I could not 
make out its use. How curious one becomes when allowed to 
see things and people by glimpses in this way, and unable to ask 
and explain fully ! 

We are anchored in twenty-one fathoms, and off Kan-no- 
zaki forty-three were found, so that we can go further up on 
occasion. We are fully four miles above IngersoU's anchorage, 
and have the peak of Fusi-san visible over Uraga, or Uraka, as 
Siebold's map has it. On the opposite side of the bay two con- 
siderable towns are seen, one of them a resort of boats ; the land 
rises gradually in that direction to no great elevation, but seems 
to be rather well cultivated. No boats are about the ship, but 
numbers are sailing in all directions, some of which evidently 
pass near the ships to see them. The tide runs very strong and 
various patches of seaweed and Medusa are common. The bay 
is a fine one, and Mr. Hine has taken a drawing of the shore 
and below Uraga.^ Four forts are hereabouts, one of them a 
recent undertaking, but they show few guns mounted and no 
strength. Parties of soldiers are stationed on shore to watch 
our landing, and one boat came so near as to start them up to , 
defend their inviolate territory. 

Sunday, July lOth. — Little of interest occurred to day. 
The two interpreters came alongside with a new officer, describ- 
ed as being of less rank than the other two whom we have had. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 53 

on board before. As he had not come to see or say aught 
respecting the reception of the letter, but on some other business, 
to explain which he wished to come up, he was not allowed to 
cross the gangway. The boat bore two flags, one the usual 
white-black- white one, and another with a figure 5 in red ; the 
men had the blue-white striped jackets we have usually seen ; 
the order and discipline maintained in these boats is superior to 
Chinese boats. Many boats bearing various flags astern have 
gone about the ships from time to time, evidently to gratify 
curiosity ; perhaps high dignitaries have come from Yedo to see 
the big ships of which rumor probably gives full accounts. 
Soldiers are evidently collecting in our vicinity, and glasses are 
so constantly in use that no movements of importance along 
shore escape notice. Trade has not been suspended at all on 
account of our presence, for the bay is at times alive with boats, 
and some sixty were counted to-day passing up northward. 

All these notices and interruptions tend to distract one's 
thoughts from the seriousness of the day which, except the 
formal service at half past ten o'clock, has hardly been referred 
to as being different from other days. I think to lead a life of 
godliness on board a man-of-war must require a large measure 
of the Spirit. 

Monday, July nth.— A surveying expedition was fitted 
out to-day to explore the bay northward, consisting of a boat 
from each ship and the " Mississippi " for an escort. They 
started about nine o'clock and the boats were erelong out of 
sight around Kan-na-zaki where the Japanese had collected many 
boats, each containing eight or ten soldiers all accoutred and 
carrying lances and swords, their banners flying and officers 
stationed to intercept them. Mr. Bent's boat was nearly sur- 
rounded, and if the steamer had not been at hand to support 
him he would perhaps have been attacked and doubtless com- 
pelled to return. Swords were drawn, but the Japanese were 
content with demonstrating their purpose and drew back as the 
party came on. About forty- five boats came out against them. 



54 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

quite enough to have turned them back ; no matchlocks or 
cannon were seen, but may have been concealed. Some officers 
wore brazen helmets and a sort of cuirass, and some had red 
jackets, A boat came near the steamer on her return contain- 
ing an officer or two in rich dresses, but no intercourse was had 
with them. The boats found deep water about ten miles, and 
it is thought the city of Yedo was seen in the distance. Great 
numbers of troops were seen embarking from the low land 
northeast of us, and beyond the same spot a large city was seen, 
perhaps Imatomi. 

While this party was away, Yezaimon and the interpreter 
Tatsnoski came off and, after being seated in the cabin and com- 
pliments passed, he told Captain Buchanan that it was probable 
that the letter would be received to-morrow, and that if he came 
off it doubtless would be taken. We expressed pleasure at 
hearing this, reiterated our amicable intentions in coming here 
and told him we expected that his government would receive us 
in a friendly way. The real design of the visit then was hinted 
at by an allusion to the steamer, and they were told her obj'ect 
simply was to sound the bay, so that, if we came here again, we 
should know where was the proper anchorage, and that she was 
to return in the evening. The two gentlemen were in good 
spirits, took a glass of wine and seemed pleased at the offer of 
examining the vessel when they came to morrow. They soon 
rose to leave and were unusually polite at departure; one of 
their flags had a figure six on it. Some of the flags seen ashore 
and red-jackets, too, to-day had ^ on them, 

Tuesday, July 12th. — The appearance of the bay this 
morning was beautiful from the sun shining through the mist 
which lay thinly on the water and through which the shores 
were faintly visible ; the whole was carried off by the rising sun. 
Few vessels were stirring before nine o'clock. 

About ten o'clock Yezaimon (whose whole name is Kaya- 
marin Yezaimon 1f iJj |^ |j| \n P^' ^"^'^^^"^ ^" addition of ;?]< #* 
Naga-nori), and the two interpreters came in a large boat to say 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 55 

that the letter would be received, but that he could not tell 
exactly tlie day. This led to explanation, and I was not sur- 
prised to see that in their minds the copies had been confounded 
with the originals, and that they referred to the latter and we to 
the former ; that they had made an appointment of an envoy to 
take those, while we supposed them to be hesitating about the 
transmission of these. The copies were shown them, and Ye- 
zaimon refused to take them, preferring to make further applica-' 
tion to his superiors to learn their will. The conference was 
very long from the apprehensions of our visitors and their con- 
stant reference to law, so that at last the Commodore sent in his 
note that he would never go to Nagasaki nor receive aught 
through the Dutch or Chinese, that he would deliver the origi- 
nals only to an officer of equal rank or to the Emperor, and that 
he must see his credentials. It was assured us that the envoy 
was a high officer, and I suggested that he was the prince of 
Sagami in whose jurisdiction Uraga lies. A proper place was 
now preparing for receiving the letter, for there was no public 
hall suitable in such a place. The need of first receiving the 
copies was insisted on, and that it was indispensable to meet an 
equal ; so, after three hours' talk and receiving a paper in Dutch 
with these points stated clearly, they went ashore to inquire 
about forwarding the copies, promising, to return in an hour or 
so. ] During this long confabulation I tried to get some informa- 
tion of a general nature, but they were rather skittish, refusing 
to tell by pleading ignorance even of the town north of the 
point, of the name of the opposite town across the bay, and such 
like matters. 

It was four o'clock before the trio came aboard and then to 
declare decidedly that they had all along understood that the 
originals were to be received, and that an envoy had come 
whose credentials should be presented as evidence of his true 
character beforehand. The principal points were then stated in 
writing — that the Commodore would deliver the originals and 
copies together at any designated place on shore, that he would 



56 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

return for an answer, that he must see the credentials of his 
host, that he should come ashore with a suitable escort, and that 
no conference respecting the contents of the papers was expected 
when they were presented, but merely a ceremonial visit. The 
constant fear on their part evidently was that we meant more 
than we said and had designs sub rosa ; they were referred to 
the letters as containing all we came for and told that these must 
be answered or consulted ; hints were also given of our going 
up the bay. 

At our request Tatsnoski showed his swords to the com- 
pany. The scabbard of one was covered with a white-brown 
speckled fish skin, which he said was brought from China ; 
perhaps it is from Manchuria ; it was smooth and nicely covered 
the wooden sheath. The other was covered with hair beauti- 
fully lackered and wound around. The blade was rather sharp, 
quite plain, and bright, but not superior to ours, at least judging 
by the looks ; two gold dragons ornamented the ends of the hilt 
which was long, for two hands, and covered with knotted silk. 
These swords are worn in a most inconvenient way for our cus- 
tom of sitting in chairs, but not for their usage of squatting. 
The prices were twenty and thirty taels for the small and large 
ones. 

After all points were explained they requested to see the 
engine, and . were taken through the ship. The size of the 
machinery seemed to gratify and amaze them, and every prin- 
ciple of propulsion was explained as well as the time allowed. 
Yezaimon, on seeing coal, said that Japan produced it in many 
places, as Firado Island, Awa in Sikokf, and Yamatto, besides 
others; its uses he knew and was far from making himself 
foolish, as the man did who got a piece from the " Preble " at 
Nagasaki. The size of the furnaces and the complicated nature 
of the machinery drew their wondering gaze. The guns, mus- 
kets and all the arrangements of the ship, the small proportion 
of the sick out of the 300 souls in her, were all informed them, 
and they observed everything. A daguerrotype pleased them 



A JOURNAL OF THE TERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 57 

much, they haviiig previously heard of the name. The survey 
of such a steamer evidently gratified a reasonable curiosity. 

From the interpreter Tokoshiuro, li ^ ^^ -f" |<5 ^fe >S' I 
learned that the ncngo of the present cubo is Kayei, ^ ^, and 
this his sixth year ; his predecessor was Choka, fj_^ \^, and be- 
fore him was Tenpo, ^ ^, who ruled when we were here in 
1837. These monarchs do not reign so long as their brother 
emperors at Peking, and I suspect have less power and influence 
in the state ; if the story be true that they are required to resign 
whenever they are in the minority with the state council on pub- 
lic questions, it is no Vv'onder their reigns are brief. He also 
gave me the official title of Yezaimon, jjfj ^ Jfl^ it :^> which is 
literally, the " Uraga riding elder scholar," but what this means 
I do not know ; his subordinate who came aboard the ship first, 
named Nagazhima Saboroske, 4* ^'^ H BP ^» is styled }'|f ^ 
]^ |»^^, the "Uraga Rider of a battalion," which is alike ob- 
scure ; his duties seemed to include those of port warden among 
others. 

Wednesday, Jiily i2,th. — The officials did not reach the ship 
till four o'clock to-day, alleging the non-arrival of the envoy 
from Yedo until late in the day, Yezaimon brought the creden- 
tials of this commission and a translation in Dutch, but no copy 
in Japanese or Chinese, so that it is impossible to verify the cer- 
tainty of this translation, though I do not suppose any deception 
is to be feared. He was rather sensitive when I came up to him 
to see the paper, and stipulated beforehand that it was not to go 
out of his hands. The seal was a small round one in the seal 
character and was stamped once in halves b}^ folding the paper 
over so as to bisect the impression ; the paper was common and 
the whole was carried in a case in the bosom of the dress. I 
suggested the propriety of having a copy in the original, but it 
was overruled. Many points respecting the interview were 
settled ; the place was at Kuri-yama around a point below 
Uraga, and the size and composition of the escort was inquired 
into. One difficulty on their part came out, which was the 



58 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

trouble of seating so many foreigners in a country where the 
people all squatted, but we told them it was unimportant and the 
Commodore would take the same accommodation the envoy 
had. 

Three of their attendants walked over the ship while these 
three were in the cabin, and expressed their thanks afterward at 
the sight, which was one they had perhaps wished for, since they 
had often come off before ; the oldest of them wished to know if 
the women in the United States were white, and then where I 
had learned his language. In explaining the last I told him 
there were many Japanese sailors abroad. The way in which 
this man talked gave me the impression that freer intercourse 
with foreigners would please many thousands of people in Japan 
if the restriction now existing is divested of all danger and the 
people can do as they like to their visitors. 

The suspicious character of the officials seemed to show it- 
self plainly to-day, but their inquiries may have been forced upon 
them, and they obliged to ask so many questions to satisfy their 
superiors who had not had their opportunities. 

Tuesday, July i^th. — The squadron was full of bustle this 
morning, getting arms burnished, boats ready, steam up, men 
dressed and making all the preparations necessary to go ashore 
and be prepared for any alternative. About half past seven 
o'clock the steamers were under weigh, and soon opened the 
beach around the point and disclosed the preparations made to 
receive the letters from President Fillmore. The officials, in 
their boats, were lying off the "Susquehanna" waiting to see the 
flag hoisted, and about the time our anchor was down they 
were alongside. There were two boats carrying six officials 
dressed in full costume who, when seated on deck, presented a 
most singularly grotesque and piebald appearance blended with 
a certain degree of richness from the gay colors they wore. 
The second officer was a conspicuous member of this party, he 
not having been aboard before since the first day ; his . dark face 
and sharp features contrasting with his yellow robe, and his 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 59 

black socks, hairy bare legs and short trowsers, all showing out 
from the overalls of his uniform, made him rather an at- 
tractive object. I cannot describe the dresses of these men 
minutely, but the effect was not unpleasant, though in 
most of them no harmony of colors was aimed at in the 
uniforms. They all seemed to be in good spirits and amused 
themselves looking at the officers in their uniforms and other 
objects. 

By ten o'clock the boats had left the steamer and, under 
the lead of the natives, were pretty much landed before eleven 
o'clock on the beach at Kuri-hama, ^ M f^ » opposite the 
shed erected for our reception and surrounded with striped 
curtains ; Commodore Perry left under a salute and found the 
escort ready when he landed to conduct him to the house 
prepared for his audience. There were fifteen boats in all, 
containing about 300 people, say 1 1 2 marines, 40 musicians, 
40 officers and a hundred or more sailors. Every one was 
armed with a sword, a pistol or a musket, and most of the 
fire-arms were loaded ; I borrowed a coat and sword so as to 
appear like the rest, but my uniform would hardly bear 
inspection or classification. A jetty had been made of bundles 
of straw covered with sand and facilitated the landing very 
greatly. The precaution of bringing down the two steamers 
to cover the place of meeting made it easy to land from them 
without exposure to the sun ; the bay near shore was deep 
but full of seaweed growing in long leaves to near the surface, 
and doubtless full of marine productions. 

The place appointed for receiving these letters was a hut 
set up on the beach, having two small ones behind it, the 
whole inclosed by white and blue striped curtains hanging 
from poles ; a screen was in front concealing the front of the 
rooms and a large opening at each end of it, between that and 
the side curtains, which were prolonged along the beach on 
each hand for nearly half a mile. The village was in the south 
of the cove near the corner from whence the " Morrison " was 



6o A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

fired at, a poor hamlet of 200 thatched huts, mostly concealed 
from our view by the curtains and the crowd. The hills rose 
behind, partly cultivated and looking exceedingly fresh and 
green, inviting us in vain to explore their slopes, for the ridic- 
ulous laws interfere to prevent our trespassing on them. Truly, 
laws which prevent such things must have been brought about 
by a hard and dear experience, for it is against nature thus to 
prohibit intercourse between man and man. 

The Japanese had placed a row of armed boats near the 
ends of the curtains, and detachments of troops were stationed 
before the curtains in close array, standing to their arms, their 
pennons flying from the curtains and gradually bending down to 
meet the boats at each end. Some of these troops Vv^ere dressed 
in dirty white, in a manner similar to the troops in Egypt, with 
full breeches and tight stockings ; others resembled Chinese 
troops, and many were in a tightly fitting habit. Horsemen 
were placed behind one or two curtains who wore brass cuirasses 
and metallic helmets or something like it. Their horses were 
large animals, far beyond the Chinese beasts I have seen, in size, 
and looking like another race than the little Lewchewan ponies. 
All these troops (numbering about 5000 men, as one of the 
Japanese told me,) maintained the utmost order, nor did the 
populace intrude beyond the guard. A few miserable fieldpieces 
stood in front, not over 4^6 or ^^^er, I should think ; many 
files had muskets with bayonets, others had spears, and most I 
could not see. Crowds of women were notice^d by some near 
the markee, but I suspect they were not numerous. Altogether, 
the Japanese had taken great pains to receive us in style, while 
each side had provided against surprises from the other and 
prepared against every contingency. 

As soon as Commodore Perry landed all fell into proces- 
sion ; Captain Buchanan, who was the first man ashore, had 
arranged all in their places so that no hindrance took place. 
The marines, headed by Major Zeilen, led off, he going ahead 
with a drawn sword ; then half of the sailors with one band 



A JOURNAL OF T?IE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 6l 

playing between the two parties. Two tall blacks heavily armed 
supported as tall a standard bearer, carrying a commodore's 
pennant, and went next before two boys carrying the President's 
letter and the [_Full Powers in their boxes covered with red 
baize. The Commodore, supported by Captain Adams and 
Lieutenant Contee, each wearing chapeaux, then advanced ; the 
interpreters and secretary came next succeeded by Captain 
Buchanan and the gay-appearing file of officers whose epaulettes, 
buttons, etc., shone brighdy in the sun. A file of sailors and 
the band, with marines under Captain Slack, finished this 
remarkable escort. The escort of Von Resanoff at Nagasaki 
of seven men was denied a landing until they had been stripped 
of almost everything belonging to a guard of honor ; here, fifty 
years after, a strongly armed escort of 300 Americans do honor 
to their President's letter at the other end of the empire, the 
Japanese being anxious only to know the size and arrangement 
of what they feel themselves powerless to resist. There were 
fully a thousand charges of ball in the escort besides the 
contents of the cartridge boxes. Any treachery on their part 
would have met a serious revenge. 

On reaching the front of the markee the two envoys were 
seen seated on campstools on the left side of a room, twenty feet 
square or so, matted and covered with red felt ; four campstools 
were ranged on the right side, and a red lacquered box between 
them. The chief envoy, ^ B9 i^ S ^ j Toda, Idzu no kami 
(Toda, prince of Idzu), and his coadj'utor, ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ , Ido, 
Iwame no kami (Ido, prince of Iwame), rose as the Commodore 
entered, and the two parties made slight bows to each other. 
The boys laid the boxes on the floor and the two blacks came 
in to open them. They were taken out and opened upon the 
lacquered box, and the packet containing the copies and trans- 
lations presented by Mr. Contee. Tatsnoske and Yezaimon 
were both on the floor, and the former commenced the interview 
by asking if the letters were ready to be delivered. When he 
made known the reply he put his head nearly to the floor in 



62 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

Speaking to Yezaimon who, on his knees, informed the envoy 
i.ft a whisper. The receipt for them in Dutch and Japanese was 
then delivered to Mr. Portman, and the 'originals themselves 
opened out in the boxes as they lay. Soon after, Commodore 
Perry said that in two or three days he intended to leave for 
Lewchew and China, and would take any letters, etc., for the 
envoys. This produced no acknowledgment on their part, and 
he then added that there was a revolution in China by insurgents 
who had taken Nanking and Amoy, and wished to introduce a 
new religion. " It will be better not to talk about revolutions 
at this time," was the significant reply, and proper one too, for 
I thought it very mal-apropos to bring in such a topic. Yet one 
might regard it with interest as ominous of the important changes 
which might now be coming on the Japanese, and of which this 
interview was a good commencement. 

Conversation being thus stopped and no signs of any 
refreshment appearing, there was nothing else to do than to go. 
The contrast between its interlocutors was very striking. In 
the front was a group of foreign officers and behind them the 
picturesque looking, shaven-pated Japanese in relief against the 
checked screen ; on the left a row of full-dressed officers with 
swords, epaulettes, etc., all in full lustre ; on the right the two 
envoys and a secretary, with two more plainly dressed men on 
their knees between the two rows. To describe the robes of 
these two envoys is difficult. The upper mantilla was a slate- 
colored brocade kind of silk, made stiff at the shoulders so as to 
stick out squarely ; the girdle a brown color, and the overall 
trowsers of purplish silk ; the swords were not very rich-looking. 
The coatof-arms was conspicuous on the sleeves, and some of 
the undergarments appearing, gave a peculiarly harlequin-like 
look to his dress, to which the other envoy was accordant. 
They were immovable and never stirred or hardly spoke during 
the whole interview ; one who tarried a little as we came out 
said that they relaxed in their stiffness as soon as we had gone, 
apparently glad that all was over. I got the impression that th? 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 6^ 

two high men had pursed themselves up to an attitude, and had 
taken on this demure look as part of it, but others looked on it 
as a subdued manner as if afraid. The re-embarkation took 
place gradually, no one being in much of a hurry, and I began 
to talk to the people and invited two of them on board to see 
the steamer and a revolver. One man wished to know if the 
women in America were white ; another, how he could learn 
strategy, to which I replied, " Only by your going abroad or 
letting us come here." I asked him why there was no music, 
to which he answered that it was very poor. Considerable 
curiosity was manifested in comparing swords, and some ex- 
changes were proposed ; altogether, this part of the interview 
was far the pleasantest to both parties, and I suspect the Japanese 
were sorry to see the show end so soon. Many, picked up shells 
and pebbles to remember the spot, and by one o'clock every- 
body was back to his place. 

Two boats full of people came alongside soon after and 
stayed on board while we steamed back to Uraga. Yezaimon 
especially took much interest in seeing the working of such 
stupendous machinery and inquiring into the manner of turning 
the wheels. All was made plain as we could explain it, though 
I fear the ideas were very crudely expressed, for I did not know 
their language well enough, and Portman seemed not to know 
the machine well enough. 

One of our visitors was the military commander of Uraga, 
an openrfaced, pleasant man who wished to learn something of 
tactics and the construction of revolvers. One of the pistols 
was fired off by Captain Buchanan to gratify him and Saboroske, 
and they had many measurements to take of the cannon on 
deck ; the latter greatly amused us by going throught the manual 
with a gun he took off the stand, his face pursed up as if he was 
a valiant hero. This man is altogether the most froward, 
disagreeable officer we have had on board, and shows badly 
among the generally polite men we have hitherto had, prying 
round into everything and turning over all he saw. At our 



64 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

request the party remained on board while we steamed up to 
Uraga and then bid us good-bye, having made themselves 
conspicuous in every part of the ship by their parti-colored 
dresses. Some refreshments were given them in the cabin, and 
they went off in good humor. 

The receipt given by the two envoys was to this purport : 
" According to Japanese law it is illegal for any paper to be 
received from foreign countries except at Nagasaki, but as the 
Commodore has taken much trouble to bring the letter of the 
President here, it is notwithstanding received. No conversation 
can be allowed, and as soon as the documents and the copy are 
handed over you will leave." The Japanese original is written 
on very thick paper made from the mulberry (Broussonnetia) ; 
the last sentence of it intimated they were to make sail im- 
mediately. 

The four ships now stood up the bay and anchored about 
where the " Mississippi " had sounded, some twelve miles above 
Uraga. Erelong, Yezaimon appeared alongside looking sour 
enough at this his third visit to the " Susquehanna " to-day. His 
object was soon explained, and we endeavored to ease his mind 
in respect to surveying the harbor, telling him that we had told 
him we were not going to sail immediately, but to go about the 
bay and seek a better anchorage than that off Uraga for placing 
our ships next year. The extent of the time we should stay 
could not be stated, but not likely to exceed four days ; we 
would not land, nor would there be any trouble if the Japanese 
made none, for our boats were strictly ordered to abstain from 
theirs. I think he himself was satisfied of our intentions, but his 
superiors were probably alarmed at the risk and sent him to do 
what he could to prevent further progress. The interview was 
rather tedious from its being a struggle, and I suspect the 
interlocutors v/ere all pleased when it was over. Others from 
the boat came on board and walked through the ship, and I 
wish there were more who could have seen her. At this visit 
and the one earlier in the afternoon many things were shown 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 65 

our visitors, such as engravings, daguerreotypes and curiosities 
of various sorts, which tended to relieve the monotony of the 
visit as well as instruct them a little. I have now learned more 
fluency by my practice and did considerable side talking. 

At eventide we were left alone and thus closed this eventful 
day, one which will be a day to be noted in the history of 
Japan, one on whiclrthe key was put into the lock and a 
beginning made to do away with the long seclusion of this 
nation, for I incline to think that the reception of such a letter 
in such a public manner involves its consideration if not its 
acceptance ; at least the prestige of determined seclusion on her 
part is gone after the meeting at Kuri-hama. 

. Friday, July 15//^.— The " Saratoga" and " Plymouth" came 
up today from the anchorage off Uraga in lat. 35° 15' 
N., Long. 139° 49' E, to join the two steamers at the 
"American Anchorage" in 35° 23' N., 139° 41' P^., off 
a thinly inhabited coast. The shores were much more wood- 
ed here than off Uraga, and steeper. North of us on a low 
projecting point were seen many pennons and increasing 
crowds of people, perhaps many of them soldiers brought 
or attracted from Kanagawa and the interjacent country 
to see us. No signs or words could attract any of the 
numerous boats to draw even within fair speaking distance. 
The surveying boats went up in the morning almost out of 
sight, and in the afternoon the Commodore proceeded in the 
" Mississippi" over the same and some new ground. The town 
of Kavv'asaki stretched along the north bank of the Taba-gawa, 
a well-placed and populous town. We thought at the time 
that this was Kanagawa, but by Siebold's map that town lies 
south and on no stream, a little inland not far from our 
" American Anchorage," and the people who come on board 
seem so chary of telling the name of a single place that one 
cannot feel confident they tell it right when they do give it. 
There were many vessels entering and more at anchor in the 
river, which seemed a wide stream near the town. Nothing of 



66 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

Yedo could be distinguished, but a long, serried row of masts 
seemed to indicate the position of Shinagavva, the suburb port 
of the capital. A singular shaped structure in the bay seemed 
to limit the vessels' going-up track on the east ; Sam Patch calls 
it Boogi and describes it as a tree on an islet. It looked like a 
steamer coming end on, with an enormous smoke pipe, or a 
roundhouse with a tower rising from the midst ; he said it had 
nothing to do with ships, and in fact knew almost nothing about 
it- except its existence, and that Yedo was three or four r/ 
northwesterly from it. The land east of this was too low to see 
more than the trees and hills, but no signs of islands appeared 
from our ship anywhere, and the land rose on the northeast and 
east shores. We estimated ourselves to be ten miles from Yedo, 
and turned about at evening "in seventeen fathoms, pleased with 
having had a look at Kawasaki and as far ahead of it as we 
could see. The shores were well wooded, but the population 
did not apparently increase as we neared the city, and we were 
obliged to turn back without a sight of the goal. 

On returning to the " Susquehanna " we learned that Yezai- 
mon had come alongside with some presents which were declined 
until the Commodore could be seen. He looked disappointed, 
but was told to come again in the morning as soon as the flag 
was up. A surveying party also returned at evening to report. 
It had penetrated up a creek where some intercourse with the 
people had been held from the boats, the whole population, men, 
women and children, running down to see the foreigners from 
the beach, and showing much pleasure at the chance. Some 
water and green peaches were procured from them, and all that 
was wanted was ability to understand each other. There were 
some motions made of cutting throats, but no one seemed to 
regard them otherwise than gestures, and the two parties 
separated much gratified with their unexpected interview. The 
country along the creek and coast was pretty but not much 
settled. It is truly a disappointment to lie off so inviting a 
country day after day and be obliged to only spy it through 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 6/ 

glasses and guess what this and that thing is. Wait till we 
come again ! 

Saturday, July \6tJi. — Off Saru-sima. We came down to 
this beautiful islet of Saru-sima early this morning ; it lies about 
halfway between Uraga and the " American Anchorage," less 
than half a mile from the shore, and is perhaps 200 to 225 feet 
high, prettily wooded and defended by three forts made of 
earth embankments with wide portholes ; the walls of these em- 
bankments were grassy and, the scarp of the. hill behind being 
likewise grassy, they were almost masked batteries. Few places 
along the bay have been better chosen than this islet for defending 
the passage or for a pleasant residence for troops. The banks 
along the main land were singularly cultivated in alternate stripes 
of clearings and copses, giving it a- striped look, especially near 
the village of Otsu. 

. Almost before we had anchored Yezaimon came pulling 
alongside bringing the presents ; the interpreters came in two 
boats and showed us a memorandum in Dutch to the effect that 
the letter of the President sent through the Dutch at Nagasaki had 
been received, and that probably our present letter would be 
favorably regarded by the council, but that it rather worked 
against us (by what manner was not intimated) to be cruising 
about the bay and examining it as we did. This paper received 
no notice, being merely a memorandum such as we had given 
them, and yet its contents were evidently directly pointed to attain 
our departure as soon as possible by holding out the hope of 
attaining our end. It is not unlikely, therefore, if we could 
remain in the bay a month, showing the ships here and there, 
that the great ends of the mission might be obtained now in 
order to avoid a second visit. 

Yezaimon and his suite took breakfast with Captains 
Buchanan and Adams and behaved themselves very properly. 
The presents in return for theirs were ready about nine o'clock, 
consisting of [ box of tea, 3 engravings of steamers and a house, 
3 History of U.S., 20 ps. of coarse cotton, bale of drillings, a 



68 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

loaf of sugar, box of champagne and demijohn of whiskey, they 
declining to receive the 3 swords. Theirs were 5 pieces of 
brocade, 40 bamboo fans, 50 tobacco pipes and 50 lacquered 
cups, which were described as merely tokens of remembrance, 
and they wished us to receive them as personal favors. Con- 
siderable discussion ensued on this point ; they wished to leave 
theirs on board and ask permission to take ours in the afternoon, 
or to send ashore to ask their superiors, but no alternative could 
be allowed ; they must either take ours, or carry their own back 
again, and we had; begun to put them up to be replaced in their 
boat when they agreed to the least serious alternative for them 
and went off with the Commodore's presents and list, taking a 
(ew other mementos from us who had had most of the con- 
ferences with them, such as -coins, soap, pictures, etc. I have 
no doubt they kept the whole themselves, concealing the tran- 
saction (as an exchange on equal terms) from their superiors. 

During the day a survey of this part of the bay was com- 
pleted, the two sloops came down to the spot, and when in the 
afternoon Yezaimon came off to bring a parting douceur of 
fowls and eggs we were able to reassure him that the squadron 
would sail in the morning as we had promised him when at 
breakfast. His assortment of fowls was rather a pretty collec- 
tion of bantam and other kinds, and he made no objection to 
receiving a box of seeds, two cakes, bottles of cologne, cherry 
cordial, maraschino and some cakes of soap, besides a good 
potation of punch and champagne under his girdle. He was in 
very good humor with everybody and left us, with all his 
retinue, about five o'clock, having visited the ship every day 
since he first came off a week ago this morning. In all his con- 
duct he has shown great propriety, apparently never getting out 
of humor, and exhibiting no hauteur or acerbity toward his 
inferiors ; listening to whatever was told him with courtesy, 
whatever its purport. 

At this and other interviews we endeavored to please our 
visitors by showing them pictures of various things, daguerreo- 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 69 

types and other little articles. I showed the map of Yedo I 
had, and they pointed out some places on it saying that the city 
had very much increased in the eighty-six years since the map 
was drawn ; they asked no questions relating to it, and were 
disinclined to answer many, for geography seems to be a deli- 
cate subj'ect whenever alluded to in any way. On their part 
no general questions were asked, so far as I now remember, at 
any interview, except the nam.es of those whom they met in con- 
ference ; nor did they exhibit a single article of curiosity or 
show the least willingness to exchange anything as mementos 
except a fan whieh Yezaimon and I passed. 

They cannot, I should think, conceal from themselves that 
during the last week their government has let down the princi- 
ple of seclusion it has hitherto maintained in refusing all inter- 
course with foreign nations, except the pent-up, despicable com- 
munications held with the Dutch and Chinese at Nagasaki, 
which must have tended to exalt their own importance and 
nourish their conceit in a great degree. Let anyone read 
Langsdorff's* account of the treatment of the Dutch at Nara- 
saki, and note their complying demeanor to all the insolence of 
the officials, and his detail of the indignities Resanoffwas obliged 
to submit to from the same men when he was there in a half 
crippled condition in a leaky ship, and was put off by the most 
trifling, impertinent excuses, and compare them with the inci- 
dents here given, and he must see that we have made a very 
different impression upon the government, and led the chief 
rulers to adopt an entirely different course, whether from fear or 
deliberative purpose, or whatever other reason. I pray God 
most humbly to order all future events so that the seclusion 
hitherto maintained may be removed without any collision and 
open the way for the introduction of this people to their fellow- 
men and their gradual elevation in science, arts and true religion. 

Sunday, July yjtJi. — We -got under weigh this morning 

* Georg Heinrich, Baron von Langsdorff, Voyages and Travels during the 
years 1 803- 1 807. 



70 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

and, each steamer taking a sloop in tow, passed out of the bay 
at the rate of nine knots, in a calm, showing most plainly the 
power of steam to the thousands who watched us. The houses 
at Kuri-hama were still standing and the pennons fluttering at 
most of the forts, with a number of the curtains still stretched 
out, but not many troops appeared. At the part near Cape 
Sagami fully a thousand boats were seen, all of them small ones 
and without sails, each containing six to ten people apparently 
abroad for no other obj'ect than to see the ships depart. To a 
maritime people, the contrast between their weak junks and 
slight [shallops and these powerful vessels must have made a 
deep impression. 

During the day Vv^e passed down among the islands off the 
bay and noted three not laid down in our charts, which were 
immediately labeled by our officers after the three ships, the 
"Plymouth" having already been accommodated with a rock. 
These islets seemed uninhabited, but this conclusion may be 
erroneous. Vulcan Island exhibited no smoke and looked 
invitingly green, so that its fires may have gone out in late 
years. 

Monday, July 2$th. — During the last week we have been 
making slow progress, chiefly owing to bad weather which came 
on within a fev/ hours of the change of the full moon. " Sara- 
toga " was in tow all day Monday, but her two chief officers 
were called onboard to receive orders, and when they went back 
took my two Chinese to land in Shanghai on board with them. 
The two ships let loose their hawsers Tuesday afternoon, and 
next morning v/ere just in sight ahead. Wednesday we had a 
strong northeast w'md, and Thursday it had increased so that 
we lay to, heading southeast for twenty-four hours, and then 
northeast for most part of Friday, the sea being very cross and 
high, indicating more severity of wind than we had, not far from 
us. The yards and topmasts v/ere sent down, guns lashed and 
steam reduced, whereby no damage was sustained. The reason 
for all this caution was the desire to see and examine the O- 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. /I 

shima Islands which lie north-northeast of Lewchew, after the 
sea and wind abated, but by Friday noon it was decided to go 
straight to Napa, and defer their inspection till a more fitting 
time and pleasanter weather. The wind remained steadily at 
the east and we made one point of Barrow Bay yesterday 
morning, and expected to get into port in the evening ; but 
as it thickened up toward night, the Commodore stood off when 
within only six or eight miles of it and bore away to the south 
and west. We got up steam early this morning and, after run- 
ning about twenty-five miles, cast anchor in Napa harbor, the 
expenditure of coal for this cautious movement being about 
$500, and Perry almost the only one in favor of it. However, 
none under him had the responsibility. 

As usual, I was so seasick as to be unable to do any work 
and could get little comfort from Mr. Taylor who was, if any- 
thing, rather worse. This penalty is now over, however, and I 
am thankful we are safely back without any mishap to crews or 
ships. Many are disappointed in not finding the " Powhatan" in 
port, but I shall be glad to see the "Plymouth " showing herself 
off the harbor in good condition, and the " Caprice " following 
her in like order. 

Tuesday, July 26th. — The mayor of Napa has been wise 
enough to resign his office v^dthin a day or two, and his succes- 
sor, Mau Yuh-lin ^ ^ jp, sent his cards off yesterday evening 
to the Comm.odore and Captain Lee, and the messengers tried 
to learn something of our visit to Japan and its results, but I 
turned them off by promising to return their visit to-morrow and 
telling them then. This morning, accordingly. Captain Adams 
and I waited on the new mayor, a far inferior official in his 
bearing and energy to the former, and apparently older. The 
other man, I suspect, has had enough of interviews and dinners, 
and retires to safe retirement before he embroils himself. Several 
points were submitted to the mayor this morning which he was 
unprepared to answer directly and did not wish to at all. We 
thanked the frovernment for erecting a tombstone over the grave 



72 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

of Pons, and wislied to learn the cost in order to repay the 
same ; but as they declined to mention it we told them that they 
need not put up one over the man buried yesterday from the 
"Mississippi." The rental of the house at Tumai for a year 
was demanded, in order to pay it, but they alleged that it was 
a temple and no rent was charged for occupying it. Room near 
it was requested on which to get a storehouse built to put coal 
ill, which was to be built by the government and rent paid for 
it, or else v/e would have it erected by native workmen. It was 
demanded of them that the spies who followed officers whenever 
they walked abroad should be removed by their superiors, and 
fair warning was given that if any collision took place and 
inj'ury was received by these tag-tails it would be their fault. 
Two months had shown that we did them no harm, and we did 
not wish to have the women and children running from us 
because these underlings were in sight. We wished also to buy 
articles, and the Com.modore wished particularly to get a great 
variety of articles — silks, cottons, lacquered ware, ch.ina-vv^are 
and other products — to put in a museum in Washington. The 
Commodore also desired to have an interview with the Regent 
to discuss these points, and it was agreed that I should come 
to-morrow and learn the time and place for the meeting, as the 
Regent should appoint. These " heads of discourse " v/ere all 
written in their presence, and they were advised to deliberate on 
them satisfactorily to us. We remained there a long time, for 
we could get no definite answer to these requirements, and, 
indeed, hardly expected it. I admonished Ichirazichi about the 
spies and told him that the officers might carry pistols and hurt 
some of them if they persisted in tagging after and constantly 
interfering wherever we went ; I hope the hint will be passed on 
to the spies themselves who, after all, are only peaceably doing 
whatever they have been ordered, and should not sufter. The 
whole interview was less engaging than previous ones here from 
the less pleasant manner of the mayor, who took no pains to 
show the least interest in v/hat was told him. Perhaps this 



A JOURNAL OI< THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 73 

qualification has been his recommendation to the post at this 
time. 

Wednesday, July 2'jtJi — Along document addressed to the 
Regent was drawn up this morning and carried asiiore by 
Lieutenant Contee and me to deUver to the mayor. We reach- 
ed the Icung-kwan about noon where we found a snialler coterie 
of officials than were present yesterday. The paper was a 
threatening expostulatio'n at being treated so unfriendly, — dis- 
allowed access to the markets and shops, followed into every 
corner and lane by spies who prev^ented all intercourse, and held 
at arm's length in a way we would not admit was right nor 
submit to ; — if a change was not made means would be found 
to bring it about on a return to Napa. The mayor declined 
opening the envelops, and promised to forward it to Shui. The 
place we were in, and two o'clock to-morrow, were appointed 
by the mayor as the time and place for the Commodore to see the 
Regent, although it was tried to get twelve o'clock as the time. 
No answer could be got out of them with respect to the de- 
mands made yesterday, but answers were promised at the 
meeting. 

Ichirazichi then proposed some questions respecting our 
visit to Yedo, but after saying that there had been no fighting 
and we had gone ashore I referred him to the morrow's meeting 
for all particulars. He asked if the ship which came in this 
morning was the " Plymouth," and if the steamer " Mississippi " 
was named from the State of Mississippi, and how many stars we 
had now in our flag. From these questions I saw that he had 
been reading the History of the United States given him, and 
then I asked him some more nam.es and told him that he must 
go to America next year and see for himself He demurred on 
account of the length of the voyage, etc., but perhaps the idea 
is not unpleasant to him. 

After munching melons and cakes, sipping tea, talking and 
scolding for an hour, we left and made a crooked road back 
through the town to junk harbor, going through the dirty pork 



74 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

market and along the creek till we reached the end of the pier. 
The view of the surf as it came rolling in over the reef was fine. 
When the boat came for us we took a stroll through a village 
across the harbor and a pull up to the watering place. The 
southern bank of the river is very prettily terraced, and every- 
where under constant cultivation, showing that much of the 
supplies of the town are brought from this region. How much 
this pull reminded me of the attempt we made to see the town of 
Napa from the "Morrison's" gig by pulling up to the top of the 
river ! Every point and turn seemed to be familiar, though it is 
probable that what I saw then has all passed out of mind. In 
the evening a party returned from a visit to an old castle lying 
southeast of Napa, which was described as being an aggregate 
of large houses and walls, apparently very old and ruinous^ and 
not so strongly built as the one at Shui. 

Thursday , J lily 22>th. — At two o'clock Commodore Perry 
and suite, seventeen in all, left the ships to pay a visit to the 
Regent at Napa kiuig-kivan, although we had just learned from a 
messenger sent off to the ship that he had been ready at noon 
and was waiting for us ; why he was unwilling to agree to have 
the meeting at noon when requested was not easy to understand. 
We landed near Capstan Point and, after waiting a while for 
other boats, and being joined by Dr. Bettelheim at the Com- 
modore's invitation, went directly across to the main street to 
the kung-kwan where the mayor met us outside of the gate, 
and the Regent inside ; the latter took Perry's arm and led him 
to his seat, and waited till all had got their places before sitting. 
Compliments having passed, the Commodore said that he v/ished 
to speak upon business before eating, and that he hoped the 
Regent had deliberated upon the points offered for his con- 
sideration two days before and had an answer prepared. The 
Americans were people of few words and many acts, and wished 
now to come to a fair understanding, as they meant what they 
said and no more ; that they had come to Lewchew in a friendly 
spirit and expected to be received in the same way they were in 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 75 

China. The Regent replied that an answer would be ready, 
and invited his guests to partake of the eatables spread out 
before them. He maintained the same impassable, fixed position 
and look as when on board ship, constantly glancing his eyes 
about ; his co-adjutor indicated little interest in anything. After 
a little, questions v/ere propounded respecting our doings in 
Japan, when the Commodore told him that we had visited the 
Bay of Yedo, had been received in a friendly manner, had gone 
ashore with about 400 persons to meet the Princes of Idzu and 
Iwami, when over 5000 spectators were assembled, of whom 
1500 were soldiers, had exchanged presents, and gone within 
thirty li of Yedo, anchoring and sounding in such parts ot the 
bay as"we pleased ; and, lastly, that we were going back there 
next year. There were more questions ready, but as they were 
told all the important points it was deemed best to bring them 
back to the subject in hand and have them answer our questions 
first, before talking further upon Japan. 

We went on eating av.'hile, some six or eight courses of 
stewed dishes following slowly as their forerunners disappeared, 
when the Commodore called up the Regent's reply ; a little 
before this, Ichirazichi being aside, I asked Bettelheim to tell the 
Regent that the Commodore thought it would be well to send 
two of the waiters to the United States to spend a year or two in 
learning our language, but the official would not hear the remark 
until it had gone through the lips of one of the te-fu, greatly to 
Dr. Bettelheim's amusement and perhaps annoyance. The 
Regent seemed to have been starched up for the occasion and 
his position was as definite as an orderly Serjeant's. 

At last the paper came, and the Regent took it, left his seat 
and went in front of the Commodore and politely handed it to 
him ; he was requested to be seated again till it could be read, 
and Perry then took his seat. It began by recapitulating all the 
items given the mayor on Tuesday, word for word as I had 
written them, as they had been reported by that functionary to 
him (the Regent). To the proposal to pay rent, it was urged 



^6 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

that the priests who had temporarily vacated the house now 
occupied by the squadron could not rent their lodging and find 
another, and therefore it was inconvenient to receive the rental or 
have it occupied. The demand to have a coal depot near it was 
turned off by a repetition of their being poor, and that if such a 
place was erected they would be overwhelmed with care and 
trolible in looking after it ; for Bettelheim had already remained 
here some years and given them much trouble, and now if we 
came too, building and lodging, their poor country could not 
stand it. In regard to buying and selling, they had nothing to 
do with the proceedings of shopkeepers and marketmen, who 
opened and shut their shops and sold or retained their wares 
just as they pleased, but added that their own productions were 
exceedingly few and manufactures contemptible — all they had 
coming from China and Japan, of which only a few lots of the 
silks, chinaware, lacquered ware and cloths came from those 
countries. The last article, concerning the spies following us, 
was plainly granted, as we had expressed our dislike of them 
and said that they were no assistance, protection or use to us 
when going about. Probably the frequent recurrence to this 
topic in our interviews, the paper handed in yesterday and the 
consciousness that a collision might ensue in some bye-path led 
them to adopt this resolution. It closed with an earnest petition 
that the Commodore would receive this reply and have com- 
passion on them. 

As soon as I had read it he ordered it to be returned to the 
Regent as being so different from what he expected that he gave 
it back for further consideration. The poor man came forward 
again and would have made a kotau if I had not stopped him. 
The petition would not be received and must be discussed more 
favorably to us by to-morrow noon, and brought on board, or 
else the points would be referred to the Prince at Shui, and we 
should go there with a large party and wait till we got an answer. 
As to the depot, if they would not build it, or allow us to do so 
by employing natives, the materials should be brought and the 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXrEDITION TO JAPAN. // 

house erected. Much time would not elapse before the authori- 
ties would feel it was best for them to agree to our wishes, for in 
China we had no trouble in getting such facilities, and there was 
no danger in their furnishing them here. 

The Commodore left in a few moments, and perhaps noth- 
ing further could have been said with any avail. It was a strug- 
gle between weakness and might, and the islanders must go to 
the wall ; it was as well planned on their part as possible, and 
they were doubtless disappointed at the result. Taking the 
question in all its bearings, I really don't p'ty them much, for 
the rulers here form an oppressiv^e oligarchy and ride the people 
to extremes, even to the non- fruition of their own wishes and 
gain and the continual impoverishment and degradation of the 
latter. The scene had some tragic features, perhaps many more 
than appeared, and was in every view a reality to the natives, 
however much of a dramatic character was mixed with it in our 
eyes. The seclusion of these islanders must give way, and if 
nothing worse comes than the granting of these demands they 
will certainly be the gainers and their policy will have time to 
adapt itself to the new influences now felt. 

Friday, July 2gth. — About eleven o'clock the querulous 
mayor and Ichirazichi came off with two or three others, the old 
man being evidently discomposed by his trip and the heat ; 
excuses were made for the Regent who may well have been 
excused from the retraction of his yesterday's petition. The 
interpreter began by asserting the propriety of the paper pre- 
sented, but the chief point of refusing the depot was per- 
emptorily overruled by our saying that we should build it 
ourselves if they did not, and that it must be close by the 
landing, as the house was too far from the boats. Excuses were 
made, then, that typhoons w^ould destroy so exposed a house, or 
thieves pilfer coal lying so remote from careful officials (and 
here a sad picture of the morals of the people in regard to niciiin 
and twnn was diawn\ or laborers would be scarce to erect if, 
and, lastl}^, that they would alter the house adjoining the main 



78 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

building in the yard for this purpose. AH these doublings were 
overruled and the previous question was carried by our appoint- 
ing a meeting on the ground at two o'clock to stake out the 
limits ; I have little doubt but that they came with this ultimatum 
from their superiors. 

The purchasing of articles and provisions was a mixed 
question, for we already get the latter (though I scolded them for 
their non-fulfilment of orders), and I think could not get them 
with less trouble to ourselves ; it is out of the question to have 
the ships supplied with boats coming alongside, as in China, for 
a long time to come, and who is to go to the dirty markets and 
pick up eggs and chickens ? The plan now pursued is perhaps 
more expensive to us and profitable to the ofificials who are 
beginning to see the benefits of such a demand, and these two 
reasons will combine to keep the present way in operation. It 
was, however, agreed that on Monday an assortment of every 
article should be spread out in the Napa kung-kwan, where the 
Commodore would go and purchase ; particular directions were 
given as to the assortment and quantity of articles to be bought, 
but I have great doubts as to the result of this bazaar. 

Thus the two main points were conceded, and the interview 
ended amicably enough, as far as appearances could indicate, 
drinking and eating meanwhile, so that at the last they had 
pretty well got over their squeamishness. At two o'clock 
Captain Buchanan and Adams and I were on the spot, but no 
officials, for whom we sent off two messengers ; meanwhile, we 
staked out the ground and found that a sufficiently large spot 
could be marked out without cutting away any trees of size, or 
intruding on any useful spot. Three o'clock passed away, and 
they went aboard, leaving me to meet the authorities on whom 
no gentle words were laid for their tardiness. They came soon 
after the boat shoved off, and I showed them the place ; it was 
much larger than they had received the idea of from our des- 
,cription, and I was myself unable to do more than refer them to 
the stakes and marks which were to be the limits. It was much 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 79 

larger than I had supposed would be wanted, and told them I 
would speak to the Commodore. They were told that they 
must clear the ground of the rubbish and grass and a plan would 
be given them to-morrow. I then went off, for I was hungry 
enough, in a boat just come, and left them there ; by nightfall 
the area was nearly cleared of all the shrubs, under the direction 
of three old graybeards who superintended operations seated 
on a mat, and directed the gnomes who flitted about with wisps 
and twigs which they had gathered up. The scene was very 
lively, and I thought the natives greatly enjoyed it. 

Saturday, July 2)Oth. — My calculations to visit the old castle 
to-day were all spoiled by an order to take the plan for the coal 
depot ashore and explain it to the builders ; we found nobody 
there on arrival and were obliged to wait more than three hours 
before any responsible person came. The details were all 
clearly understood by means of the diagrams and the officials 
required to clear a larger space and put up the shed as soon as 
possible, to receive the cargo of the " Caprice " — a thatched hut 
sixty feet by thirty-five, and about ten feet high. I hope those 
who superintend the job will let the workmen have some of the 
money received, but I am afraid that they will not get a fair 
reward ; as we drive the officials, they will drive their underlings. 

In the evening during my walk I found my way into a 
literary establishment near the bridge, a series of three buildings 
pleasantly situated behind the stone wall amid a grove of trees ; 
the doorway had a tablet stating that it had been repaired in the 
twentieth year of Kienlung (1755) and by the assistance of the 
Chinese ambassador here. There were four men writing on 
small stands in the principal room who told me that they studied 
the Nine Classics, but I could not induce-them to show me their 
books. Several tablets were hung up in the room, and the 
aspect of the whole grounds was retired and scholastic. 

The broad way which ran along the edge of this river is 
one of the thoroughfares of the town, and we watched the passing 
crowd with attention for a long time. The groups of women 



So A JOURNAL OF THE PEKRV EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

and children around some stall or basket where pattens or 
pottery, bean cvud or pea-sprouts, were sold engaged our notice 
by their foolish fear and refusal to have anything to do with us ; 
they would neither take our coppers nor answer our words, the 
older children shaking their hands in the most seriously comic 
style. The children are usually pot-bellied and remind me of 
Egyptian children, both in color and gait. Sometimes a woman, 
known by her flowing, loose gown to be of a little higher grade, 
would hurry by us, presenting in her quick step and sidelong 
glances and turns a growing struggle between fear and curiosity, 
so that we were sometimes in doubt which would get the 
mastery ; and then would follow a stately official with his girdle 
largely displayed over his checked dress. Horses overladen 
and old women carrying heavy baskets on their heads frequently 
went by ; and among the crowds we saw few who were maimed 
or sickly looking. Most of them were thinly clad. They were 
generally clean, short and stocky, especially the women who 
will not average over four feet ten inches, and may challenge 
comparison with any other country for coarse features and 
untidy heads. The men are far their superiors, but it must be 
remembered that we have not seen the w^omen of the officials 
nor any girls reared with care. 

Few officials followed any of our officers this evening, from 
which we may infer that the system of espionage has been pretty 
much laid aside. Some who have gone into villages away from 
Napa have succeeded in getting crowds around them, and fur- 
ther intercourse would doubtless result in our being received 
everywhere. The sailors in the Japanese junks have generally 
showed pleasure at our visits, though nothing of any value has 
been procured there. • 

We stopped at Dr. Bettelheim's to bid him goodbye, and 
found others there on a similar errand, more as a mask of res- 
pect than goodwill. While his wife has grown in the good 
opinion of the squadron, he has contrived to get the suspicion or 
actual dislike ofahnost everybody. His intrusion into the 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 



8i 



interview last Tliur.sday was little pleasing to the principal actors, 
and tends to mix us up with him in the minds of the native 
authorities. His proceedings have been so anomalous that I a*m 
really unable to say what and how much good he is doing, though 
I hope he will come out bright at the last, and his work stand 
the fire. The counsel and opinion of a fellow-laborer would do 
him service and enable his patrons to form a better judgment. 

Sunday, July 2)\st. — I dined with Captain Lee and Rev. 
Mr. Jones to-day ; the " Mississippi " is a much quieter ship than 
this on the Sabbath, and to increase the turmoil of washing 
decks after coaling, most of the nien were sent ashore to wash. 
A dash of rain interrupted our service before Mr. Jones had got 
through the exordium of an astronomical discourse he had 
commenced. 

Commodore Perry seemed rather pleased this evening to 
report that most of the timbers for the coal depot were on the 
ground and the whole would be done erelong — all of which I 
suppose is to be laid to the effect of the threat to visit Shui. 

Monday, August \st. — About six o'clock this morning I 
was called to go ashore with Commodore Perry to the bazaar 
opened for our benefit at the Napa kung kwan. We found a 
larger assortment than I had expected, and all the finer articles 
were taken, perhaps in all to the amount of $60 ; if more time 
had been allowed I think we sliould have had finer pieces 
brought in from the deah-rs, and spent double what we did. 
There was no porcelain nor many silks, and the whole lt)t was 
perhaps not worth over $150, but it will serve as a commence- 
ment, and I think the sellers had no cause to complain. 

As soon as all returned aboard the anchor was weighed, 
and we bid goodbye to Napa, the main demands of Thursday's 
interview having been all granted. It is doubtful to my mind 
how much influence the threat of going to Shui and occupying 
the palace had, in inducing acquiescence, in comparison with the 
announcement made at the same time and subsequently that we 
should soon leave if these demands were allowed. Yet the 



82 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

assortment of things this morning showed that the government 
had made known the opportunity to many traders for them to 
take advantage of, and I hope none of tliem lost. The stocks 
were in one or two cases so soon replenished that the stores 
could not have been far off, and perhaps even finer ones would 
gradually have been produced had time allowed. Lacquered 
bowls and boxes, cotton cloths, silk, and both mixed, hairpins, 
sashes, shoes, pipes, fans, coarse pottery and umbrellas comprised 
the list ; good prices would have induced them soon to bring 
more real Japanese lacquered ware. 

We have been at this port about thirty days, and doubtless 
during that time have done much to stir up the Lewchewans, 
intimidate the authorities, induce them to relax their non-inter- 
course regulations, and commence treating other nations more 
openly. We have made them receive pay for provisions and 
gradually increased the amount of supplies until the ships began 
to get something nearer adequate to their wants ; small purchases 
were daily made in the markets for the last week, and fewer of 
the spies tracked our steps, producing also less alarm among the 
women and children at our presence. The Chinese sent over 
from Shanghai to Dr. Bettelheim seems to be a man who will 
teach these rulers some new ideas on civil polity and foreign 
intercourse, and will less arouse their fears than a foreigner. 
He made his way into the palace last week where he saw the 
prince and was civilly received by Mau, one of the Treasurers. 
At a visit to the mayor's he was also respectfully treated. In 
breaking up the system of things so long upheld in this island, 
time and kindness, firmness and justice, united and allowed their 
fair action, will soon have their due effect. We have begun, I 
think, in this manner, and I hope will not deviate from it, though 
I have great fears on the subj'ect. 

Tuesday, August 2nd. — This evening, to the gratification of 
everyone, we met the " Vandalia " on her way to Napa, and 
obtained letters from her, among which I was happy to find one 
for me informing me that all at Macao and Canton were in good 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 83 

health a week ago. It is something of an event for three 
United States men of war to meet in these unfrequented seas. 

Saturday, August 6th. — Last evening the squadron anchored 
in Hongkong harbor and, to the regret of all, heard that the 
" Powhatan " had sailed for Lewchcw Saturday morning ; she 
would have been intercepted if the " Mississippi " had gone on 
ahead of us, as she might easily have done. 

I find that friends are, in general, well. I n;ean to start 
this evening in a fast boat for Macao, having missed the steamer 
this morning. Thus ends the first acts in the Expedition to 
Japan. 

Wednesday, January will, 1854. — Since I left the "Missis- 
sippi " and " Susquehanna " at Hongkong I have been engaged in 
carrying on the Fan Wan* which yesterday reached the 400th 
page. In October, while at Macao, either through exposure to the 
sun or the effects of a cold and malaria, I was taken sick with a 
low, nervous fever which reduced me very much ; it was the 
first sickness I have had since childhood, and I bless God for 
recovered health at this day, so that I can leave in health lo 
rejoin the Expedition at Hongkong. I depart from my home 
in full confidence of my being where duty calls me, and leave 
my family under the care and governance of our heavenly 
Father who has hitherto watched over us all. Mr. Bonney has, 
unwillingly, taken care of the office again until I return, after 
which, if I am permitted to do so, he will leave for the United 
States. I have secured the assistance of Lo, a teacher of good 
attainments and no opium smoker, so that I hope to do more 
study than I did before. 

Tuesday, January i ']th. — I came on board the " Susque- 
hanna " on Friday evening, having learned that the squadron sails 
early in the morning. The officers all anxiously hoped that the 
mail would come before the ships leave, but the Commodore 
would not wait for it ; happily it arrived about ten o'clock in 

* The author's Ying IVa Fan ]Van Ts'i'U Jii, or "Tonic Dictionary of the 
Chinese I.anguage in the Canton Dialect," published in 1856. 



84 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

the evening. I saw the Bishop on Friday, and he wishes to 
hasten on Bettelheim's labors as a translator of the SS. so that 
the Bible Society can have somewhat to print. Mr. and Mrs. 
Morton expect to sail on Tuesday for Lewchew in a ship bound 
for California, While at Hongkong I remained at Mr. John- 
son's where also the officers have often frequented and been 
pleasantly entertained. 

All being ready, the ships weighed anchor about nine 
o'clock on Saturday and steamed out of Hongkong harbor, 
saluting Admiral Pellew's ship as the flagship passed her in 
return for her salute of thirteen guns ; the " Powhatan " took the 
" Lexington " sloreship in tow, and the " Mississippi " took the 
" Southampton," and all m.oved out nearly simultaneously 
through the Ly-u-moon passage. 

To-day we have passed the southern end of Formosa, pro- 
gressing rapidly on our course ; the sea is smooth and a fair 
view has been obtained of the shore, distant about two and a 
half miles, which offers few signs of inhabitants, some cultivated 
and stubble patches, a house or two, and roads leading inland. 
Many places might be reckoned as villages from the smoke 
which issued from them, but they were far off and could not be 
distinguished. Most of the shore was covered with low woods, 
and large areas appeared as if untouched by man. The soil 
was generally good enough to produce grass or trees, and no 
bleak, barren patches speckled the hillsides as about Hongkong. 
The hills rose gradually to the mountain ridge, one peak of 
which was estimated to be twenty-five miles off and over 3,OCO 
feet high, and doubdess constituted a portion of the chain which 
forms the backbone of the island. This portion of Formosa 
has been lately made infamous by the capture of the " Larpent's " 
crew after she was wrecked, most of whom were hereabouts 
driven ashore and murdered by savage natives, a few having 
obtained safety among Chinese villages and finally escaped to the 
' ' Antelope " as she passed through this strait in their sight. Such 
miscreants as dwell at this end of Formosa should be severely 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 85 

dealt with ; perhaps the desolate aspect of the apparendy fertile 
coast may be owing to their driving away peaceable setders and 
being themselves afraid of living within reach of outsiders. 
Some blackfish and two black terns were seen as we passed the 
straits. 

Sunday , January 22nd, — Lewchew. 

We reached the harbor of Napa last evening at sunset, 
finding the " Macedonian," " Vandalia " and " Supply " at anchor 
here and their officers pleased to see us. Mr. Bettelheim also 
was soon aboard, and reported that the authorities seem to have 
made up their minds to endure, in our visits and remaining 
here, what they cannot cure or prevent. To-day has been 
a complete turmoil in the squadron from the orders which 
have come out from Washington to put one of the steamers 
at the service of Mr. McLane* and take him about. The 
Commodore moves himself and suite into the " Powhatan," 
which necessitates some other changes and a good deal of 
work. Service was held to-day and then the orders were 
made known, which of course set everybody a talking and 
utterly destroyed all seriousness. Added to the bustle on board 
a deputation came from the mayor of Napa to salute the Com- 
modore, and their members wearied out nearly an hour in the 
captain's room saying little and making him (Captain B.) nervous. 
From them we learned that the old Regent is still living at Shui, 
rather infirm ; that the new one and the mayor are the same as 
when we left in August and that junks begin to arrive from 
Satzuma in March. Towards evening a present of a bullock, 
two goats, two hogs, fifteen chickens, eggs, turnips and potatoes 
came off from the mayor to the Commodore. The manner in 
which the Lewchewans tie up eggs in straw by plaiting them 
lengthwise inside of alternating strands is very pretty and safe, 
and prevents their breaking with usual care. These things 
Vv^ere received and their bearers at last went home. 

Monday, JaniLary 2yd. — Napa. 
. * Robert M. McLane, United States Commissioner in China. 



S6 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

This morning I was early aroused by the noise of hammers 
and chisels and the voices of workmen who, beginning to 
pull up the fastenings of the house and take down its partitions, 
gave me no peace. All this was preparatory to moving on 
board the " Powhatan," where the Commodore and his suite 
are to remain until the cruise is over, as the " Susquehanna " is 
to return to Hongkong to receive Mr. McLane. We are 
all much inconvenienced by the change, and the artists more 
than others, as they are sent on shore to do the best they can 
at Tumai in the house hired there, cheerless and dirty as it is. 
I am meanwhile placed in the cabin. 

About ten o'clock I went ashore to return the mayor's 
deputy's visit of yesterday, accompanied by Lieutenant Brown 
as the Commodore's deputy. We went directly to the kung- 
kwan of Napa instead of going to Dr. Bettelheim's, and there 
waited two hours for Ichirazichi and the mayor to come. 
Meanwhile, a pleasant man whose ancestors came from Fuhchau 
about 120 years ago made himself agreeable to us. At last the 
officials arrived and we gave them the Commodore's salutations 
and tcld them our message — that he intended to take a trip into 
the country in a week to be absent three days or so, requesting 
them to prepare a cortege of coolies, chair-bearers and guides, 
with eight or ten horses to ride on and carry baggage. These 
intimations did not at all please them, and various obstacles 
were interposed, such as the distance and a separate j'urisdiction 
of the northern part of the island, over which the mayor had no 
control. He was then requested to inform the proper authori- 
ties of the proposed visit and, furtherm.ore, to tell the Regent 
that Perry intended to see him and pay him a visit while in 
port. The interpreter hoped that the Commodore would pay 
this proposed visit at the kung-kwan and not at Shui. This I 
said was against all usage and could not be allowed. So we 
came away. 

In the evening I went with Dr. Wilson of the " Supply " to 
see a neat little garden made with coral in fancy garden style, in 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 8/ 

terraces and pools, with dwarfed pines and other plants, minia- 
ture houses and pavilions, all in the neatest style on an area of 
about twenty feet square. Some gold fish and other kinds were 
swimming in the lower pool. The inmates of the house were 
very affable, but we could not communicate much with them. 
I am told there are many such fancy Imitations In Shui, all 
perhaps taken from larger Chinese originals. During the rest 
of the afternoon we saw perhaps a dozen people transplanting 
rice which is here allowed to grow much higher before being 
put into its new bed than in China. Dr. Morrow killed a king- 
fisher this afternoon, of a steel blue and bluish green plumage, 
different in several points from those common near Macao. 
Also a plain gray-brown crane which is common oti the shore ; 
it is two feet high and has yellow Irides and is speckled black on 
the yellow legs ; named ko-sdji, and the kingfisher is kauzi'd. 

Tuesday, Janua)y 2^th. — This morning went again to the 
mayor's at Napa, Captain Pope and Lieutenant Brown being 
deputies of the Commodore's. The time of waiting was spent 
at Dr. Bettelheim's whom I found most anxious to get away to 
China as soon as Mr. Morton comes. The message to the old 
mayor was to ascertain the price of building the coal shed and 
cost of materials, so that the bill may be settled and right of 
ownership established by the receipt of the authorities for it. 
Also to have him see that the horses and coolies needed for the 
excursion be in readiness at Tumai. My teacher is greatly 
amused at these people, their beggarly equipages and aspect, 
the way in which they go about half dressed and their un- 
willingness to sell provisions. One man told him, " What use 
can we make of your money ? If you'll give us a piece of pork 
we'll give you potatoes, for then we shall have somewhat to eat, 
but we can't eat cash." Thus the avaricious officials appro- 
priate all the profits of the purchases of provisions for the fleet. 

After leaving the mayor's we were met by Ichlrazichi who 
said the Regent and Treasurer were in waiting at Tumai, unable 
to get off to see the Commodore. I went alone to see him and 



88 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

received the cards with the spirits and cakes he was to have 
taken off ; further effort was made to deprecate the proposed 
visit to Shui, but I told them 'twas out of the question. Lo's 
idea that it would do these officials good to bamboo them to 
teach them manners is not far from the truth. However, God's 
purposes may not yet be ready thus to deal with them ; but 
their nonsense and prevarication are very provoking, while it is 
really, too, about the only weapon they possess. Active efforts 
to oppose us they cannot bring to bear, and passive resistance is 
their only alternative. 

I dined to-day at Dr. Bettelheim's with Morrow and passed 
the afternoon there. Mr. Crosby, the third assistant engineer of 
this ship, was buried to-day at Tumai where now rest some six 
bodies from the fleet, over all of whom, except him, the Lew- 
chewans have built solid stone tombs and plastered them nicely 
without any demand for payment. 

Saturday , Ja7iuary 2?>th. — Napa. 

The three last days have been so stormy, and the swell 
and surf have rolled in so high that few or no boats have left 
the ships and very little work has been done. The Commodore 
gave a dinner to Captains Boyle and Glasson of the storeships 
yesterday. 

This morning as usual I went to see the effete old mayor 
of Napa to urge him to do what I suppose he finds difficult 
enough, viz., to get our request fulfilled. The means of defense 
this people possess lie chiefly in their weakness and in constandy 
saying that they have not this and can't do that, and to weary 
us out by delaying and excuses. The Commodore wished to- 
day to get coins in exchange for American coins we showed the 
mayor, and straightway the querulous old man began to say 
there were no coins in the country, that the Japanese never 
brought any coins to Lewchew where no one used them, and 
ended by declaring that as there were none, so none could be 
got. His assistants took an order, however, for a large chow- 
chow box, ten lacquered tumblers and a punch bowl of lacquer, 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 89 

to be done when we return from Japan, which they made no 
obj'ection to doing. It is exceedingly provoking to hear the 
lies and nonsensical excuses made by these officials, when all 
that is necessary is for them to let their people do as they 
please, sell all that we ask for and keep themselves away. 
Another thing wanted to-day was the bill for erecting the coal 
houses, and this too they boggled at as if it was some new 
thing ; when they learn to take our words just as we say them 
there will be a great advance on present intercourse. 

In the afternoon a large lot of presents were sent ashore — 
a box of drills, a dozen of champagne and cherry cordial, a box 
of 35 pounds sperm candles and a box of Oolong for the Regent, 
together with a small chest of tea for the first and second 
Treasurers, all of which valuable articles were delivered in ex- 
change for the saki and gingerbread handed in by the Regent 
and taken by the interpreter. I also told him not to fail in 
getting the coins, as we were determined to have them ; indeed, 
I have an idea that a good deal of the hindrance we find is 
owing to this Ichirazichi who may be compelled to this course 
by his superiors. The jaunt into the country is now delayed a 
few days. 

Simday, Janiiaiy 2gth. — Napa. 

Although to-day is Sunday there is little cessation from 
work or business, and if God adds his blessing and enables 
us to carry out the design of the Expedition it will not 
be because of or in answer to our prayers or regard for 
him, but because we are used as Nebuchadnezzar, the 
ax-helve, was, to carry out what falls in with his plans. In 
fact, no regard seems to be paid here to whatever scruples a 
man may have about doing work on the Sabbath. Mr. Brown 
went ashore to see the officials about wood, boats and coins, all 
of them objects of minor importance and easily deferable to 
another day. Dr. Smith was also ordered to go ashore to see 
about a man lying in the hospital with a broken thigh, which 
service was really no more called for than if he had been sent 



90' A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

to see the condition of the boats lying on the beach. In truth, 
God's day and, by consequence, others of his laws are made to 
give in to the will of one man, or else the subordinate subjects 
himself to the penalty of disobedience or mutiny, of which 
every officer at least is very jealous of incurring even a suspi- 
cion. 

Monday, Jamiary 30//^. — On going ashore with Captain 
Adams and Lieutenant Brown to meet officers at the may- 
or's hall, we saw many signs of the new year like those known 
in China, among which the renewal of the papers with inscrip- 
tions on the doorposts, the numbers of well-dressed people and 
children and the clean streets were the most conspicuous. The 
markets were generally open, however, and one or two mecha- 
nics were at work. The streets were not thronged as much as 
usual. At the kung-kwan we met the Treasurer who had been 
waiting for us, and had a session of two hours during which we 
obtained a receipt for the erection of the coal-shed and for the 
rent of the hospital for six months to March 1st at $40 per 
annum. The cost of the coal-shed was placed at $90. While 
other matters were talked about, Rev. Mr. Jones came in to 
engage bearers to take him and a party to the north of the 
island to-morrov>^ to investigate Lieutenant Whiting's report 
concerning a coal and iron mine in the region of Port Melville. 
The facility of having higher officers in concluding matters was 
here seen, for our demand for boats to take off ballast, coolies to 
carry this exploring party, and to take pay for the coal-shed 
were fairly complied with. I told the Treasurer that the Lew- 
chewans were as difficult to take m.oney as a sick child was to 
take medicine. Our request to exchange coins was waived as 
before by a firm denial that any were procurable, although I ad- 
duced the proof of Japanese coins having been got of Lew- 
chewans in Fuhchau ; perhaps 'this demand trenches on their 
desire to disavow all knowledge and presence of Japanese. 

In the evening the interpreter came to Tumai and received 
the $110 for rent, etc., which was settled after along discussion. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 9 1 

In signing their names in Chinese he and his fellow added a 
rubric very much like the Spaniards, formed of two or three 
characters ; it seems to answer instead of a seal. 

Tuesday, J anumy 31^/. — Napa. 

I was employed on board all day preparing a document 
to take to the Regent himself, in which the Commodore 
takes a firmer stand, and tells the officers of this petty 
island that he can no longer submit to their subterfuges 
and nonsense. One cause of this move is that he sent off 
his steward this morning to get some fish from the boats out 
on the reef, and they fled ; and on going ashore he fared no 
better, as there were none in the market. So the Commodore, 
instead of fish for his breakfast, got nothing but a blue-slate 
crane which his messenger had picked up somewhere. Further- 
more, the demand he has made for coins has been met with a 
firm denial, that no such things are known or brought except 
cash, while he learns to-day (through a native who has thrown 
himself on our kindness and paddled off to the ship Sunday 
night, desiring to go off with us), that many Japanese coins are 
brought here, though they are not in circulation. Again, Lieute- 
nant Whiting has brought a specimen of powder he procured 
at a mill he came across in his survey, while all kinds of arms 
and powder have been often asserted to be unknown in the 
island. Taking all these things together, the Commodore is 
going to talk " strong " to them and see what effect it will have, 
especially as he is soon to leave for Yedo, and all that we do 
here is reported there and may influence our reception there, 
Wednesday, February ist. — Napa. 

Early this morning the marines were sent ashore under 
Captain Slack's order to drill, and Lieutenant Brown, Mr. 
Perry and I were off by a quarter past seven, a.m., to take 
the Commodore's letter up to Shui and give to the Regent 
himself. We met the marines near the bridge and, joined 
by Mr. Eldridge, went up to Shui with them. As we neared 
the capital the music and ai ms of the men attracted atten^ 



92 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

tion and the people came running out to see the show ; but 
it was when we saw the Regent and Treasurer coming out 
in a great hurry to see what the matter was that the ex- 
treme confusion this sudden visit had thrown them all into was 
best exhibited. They conducted us four into the hall and began 
to make preparations to make the empty chamber fit to receive 
us, mixed up with questions to us, orders to the servants and a 
half unsatisfied, terrified air which showed how scared they 
were. I gave them the paper, told them the Commodore was 
coming on Friday to the capital to pay his respects to the Prince, 
and wished them to have horses, chairs and bearers in attend- 
ance at Tumai. They made apologies, and hoped that the 
Commodore would receive his visit at Napa, for the Prince was 
young and his mother was sick, etc., but we got up to leave, 
declining their refreshments and reiterating the orders we had 
received. They made efforts to have us stay, and had not fully 
recovered from their alarm when we came away, but as there 
was nothing to be said more it was thought best to decline. The 
marines had gone on up to the palace gates, where a large crowd 
was gathered to see them, and we told the officials we had no- 
thing to do with their movements, that they had come ashore 
for exercise and marched up to Shui to entertain the people of 
the capital with a new-year's show. On our return we had got 
nearly half way back before we heard the music striking up, 
and this mingled with the pleasant breeze soughing through the 
pines, and at intervals the sheen of the guns and uniforms as the 
company came in our sight, rendered it a very pleasant and 
pretty show. I expect the effect on the officials will be salutary 
in a reasonable degree and make the people used to us. 

In the afternoon I strolled through the streets with the 
teacher and we found our way into a number of places he had 
not seen before, one of which was the graveyard near Dr. Bet- 
telheim's. In this place most of the tombstones were placed on 
pedestals, each monument being in the midst of a square 
inclosure made by a low stone wall ; the stone was soft, fine red- 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 93 

sandstone or a whitish rock-like tufa. Some of the epitaphs 
were dated in Kienlung's or Kiaking's reign, but all the recent 
ones were dated in the reign of the siogouns Kayei, Tiupo, or 
others, from which one might infer that Japanese were buried 
here, or that stricter oversight was taken of the acknowledgment 
made of the Chinese by the I.ewchewans. Most of them com- 
menced with M X o'^ l§ M or ^ ^, i.e. " returned to his 
original," or to "certainty," or to "nothing," "emptiness," 
" annihilation." I could get no one to tell me about them, but 
the epitaphs indicated official rank. The oldest grave was not 
over a century. A few had hirakana writing on the side of the 
intaglio-cartouch containing the Chinese inscription ; and one or 
two others were wrought into a square pillar placed on its end 
and surmounted with a roof, all of stone. The common style of 
inscription is here given : 



m 






^ _ The seat (or throne) of the spirit ot 
-L. >iL ~^ the retired scholar Wei-ngan, styled 
J -p also Cheh-sin, who returned to certain- 
ly Li ty on the 14th of the 4th month in the 

/S" 2 1st year of Kien-lung. 

± ^ 

pan 

The temple near by is a small building and at this time was fill- 
ed in its principal room by a dozen or more men who seemed 
to have nothing to do better than to smoke and look at each 
other. The walls were hung with a variety of tablets such as 
are common in Buddhistic establishments. 



94 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

Thursday f Febniaiy 2nd. — Napa. 

I was ashore this morning to see the mayor respecting 
the visit to Shui, when I was told that the Regent and 
officers were about disembarking to go to the flagship, and 
had to hurry off across the salt-pans to see them before they 
left. I was in time, got -into the boat with them, and we 
had chairs arranged for them on deck, as Perry declined to 
see them. They brought a reply to the paper taken yesterday, 
in which they promise to order the people not to run away, 
to supply all the provisions sent for and to act with truth- 
fulness, in which last they have promised more than they can 
perform, I think. They made many excuses for not being 
able to let the Commodore see the Prince or Dowager and, al- 
though they were willing to let him into the palace, it was in- 
expedient for him to see them ; it was not until this was agreed 
to that they were made easy. There must be some reason for 
this difificulty which they do not like to let us know, perhaps 
because it verges too near to the Japanese rule. There was as 
much difficulty in this respect now as there was last summer, 
and perhaps it has been made more stringent upon them since 
then, although from the description of Bettelheim's Chinese who 
saw him last August, there is such a person, and I am told he 
often goes abroad.* However, it was agreed to, and at this 
they left in better humor than they came up. 

Friday, Febniajy 3;^/. — Napa. 

The morning was so threatening that it was not till 
nearly seven o'clock that the Commodore concluded to go 
to Shui. The marines were sent ashore immediately and 
Perry left at half past eight o'clock with the promise of a fine 
day. Eight stout fellows were on hand to carry him in 
his sedan and we started at half past nine o'clock ; the number 
of officers was less than at the visit last summer, and the 
absence of the fieldpieces made it a less imposing escort. 

* Doubt is expressed in Commodore Perry's Narrative of the actual existence 
of such a person. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 9$ 

The Regent and his associates received us in the palace where 
they had laid out a number of tables in the same room in which 
we were received last summer. Formal professions and saluta- 
tions were exchanged, and the Commodore brought out his 
coins for exchanging with them, the Regent evidently unwilling 
to receive them ; There were nine sorts, valued at $49! in 
all, and they said they would do all they could to get their 
weight in Japanese coins, but declared to the last their non-pos- 
session of such and the difficulty of doing as we desired. After 
a few other compliments we rose and went off to the Regent's, 
no Prince being brought out for us to see. 

At his residence we found the tables all laid out for a din- 
ner and the various dishes brought on, to the number of twelve 
or fourteen, proved to be far more palatable than any we had 
previously tasted. They were all cooked as stews and there 
was great similarity in the gravy, but not so much in the viands. 
The whole went off in good humor and we left on our return at 
eleven o'clock, the Regent accompanying us to the outer door. 
The walk back was a delightful one, the fresh air and charming 
scenery exhilarating us all ; in fact, no one can get tired of the 
views on the way up to Shui, and the industry of the village is 
nowhere better seen. After we reached the ship the presents 
made to every guest were assorted — fans, tobacco pouches and 
paper to each, cloth, tobacco-leaf, etc., to the officials. 

In the evening I took a stroll with Dr. Smith, visiting the 
markets and finding the old women well disposed to sell, and 
one would be disposed to buy if they had anything worth 
having. 

Saturday, February 4th. — I was ashore at the Napa kung- 
kwan to-day to see after the Japanese coins, but none were to be 
had ; they declare that they have none and I begin to believe 
them. They soon produced a bill- of charges for the supplies 
and labor furnished Lieutenant Whiting in his survey at the 
north, amounting in all to $108, more than as much again as he 
had judged. So, if they will not let us have coins, they are 



96 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

learning to like ours and to charge round prices for all their 
little island furnishes. In their reply to the communication 
taken to Shui on Wednesday they say that Lewchew is a " little 
out-of-the-way island off in a corner of the sea " and entreat the 
Commodore in the greatness of his kindness to have compassion 
on them, and promise to do all he wishes ; but this talk is all 
subterfuge and may be taken for nothing. However, as it was, 
I took advantage of it to get some supplies for the engineer's 
mess and some sailors from the "Mississippi," telling two of the 
sailors to go into the market and get some stores for themselves, 
which they managed to do. The sailors have contrived to 
supply themselves with many things from the markets during 
the time we have been here, and have quite brought over the 
old women there to think they are good customers. 

Sunday, February ^th. — I was unable to move to the 
" Powhatan " yesterday, and I had hardly gone aboard that ship 
when I was sent for by the Commodore. I took a final order 
for the Regent to have the coins ready on his return from 
Japan, telling him that we would know whether his professions 
were real by his getting them. I knew that Lieutenant Brown 
had gone for them, to make a last trial, and was quite sure he 
would not succeed. On reaching the flagship I saw a large 
number of presents with cards, in return for those handed in on 
Friday, spread out on the deck ; these were in return for the 
barrel of whiskey and flour and a lot of garden tools given 
them yesterday. They were all received, and the boats had 
left for the shore when Lieutenant Brown and Ichirazichi came 
off, bringing back our coins and a paper from the Regent 
stating his inability to obtain any in exchange. The Commo- 
dore declined to see them, but on hearing the paper read 
ordered all the presents back into the boat and gave them his 
own communication to take to the Regent with the coins he had 
given him at the palace. In doing this I think Perry acted like 
a disappointed child, and was piqued at being unable to effect 
the exchantje of coins he had set his heart on. Pie bids me tell 



A JOURNAL OF THK PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 9/ 

them that he asks only for what is reasonable, and that the 
exchange of national coins is a sign of friendship ; these islanders 
are known and allowed to have no mint of their own, but a 
breach of amity is made to depend on their furnishing the coins 
of another land, which they deny to have or be able to get. I 
think this matter was carried much too far and, as I will tell no 
lie for Perry or anyone else, I never told them he asked only 
what is reasonable. I was much vexed at the rejection c f these 
sundries and hoped the Regent would send the shovels and 
hoes, flour and whiskey, presented to him yesterday, back in 
like manner. He has doubtless exerted himself and can do so 
still farther, and it was well to leave our coins in his hands, but 
that matter, as Ichirazichi said, had nothing to do with the 
presents sent. If the coins desired were Lewchewan the case 
would be materially altered ; as it is, I think Perry is in the 
wrong in pressing the exchange to such a degree. 

Monday, February 6th. — A signal was made for me this 
morning early and, on reaching the " Susquehanna," I found Mr. 
Randal there and the list of the presents brought off yesterday 
lying on the table. He said the articles themselves were then 
at the house in Tumai, and that the interpreter had been with 
him }'esterday, apparently very desirous of getting off to the 
ship. On going ashore with him I sent for Ichirazichi who came 
after a long delay and said he had nothing to do further in the 
matter, that the list had been brought there and that the com- 
munication had been sent up to Shui, but no coins had yet been 
procured. Plowever, we got pigs, poultry and potatoes which 
are now more valuable than coins, in my opinion, the purveyors 
having bestirred themselves on seeing their profits were depart- 
ing and brought down the largest lot of eatables to the beach 
that had before been seen in Lewchew. I pitied this interpreter, 
for I doubt not he is in an unpleasant dilemma, and would 
willingly sell all these presents to relieve himself from the 
difficulty of taking them back to Shui. He perhaps states 
things pretty much as he desires them to be, and a course of 



98 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

such conduct soon brings him into some troublesome explana- 
tions, though in the main I doubt not that he is honest. 

The Commodore thinks that as he has once set out to get 
the coins and believes that they are to be found in the country, 
it will not do to retreat from the attempt, and such a determina- 
tion is the best way of dealing if we were sure the coins were to 
be had by them after a little pressure. The matter is now left 
until we come back, and I am inclined to think the authorities 
will try to get some if possible. 

After dinner half a dozen of us went to Shui, attracted by 
the pleasant afternoon, to take a stroll. The country looks 
exceedingly pretty, freshened as it has been by the recent rains 
and brought out in all its beauty by the high cultivation it is 
under. We got up to the highest part of the castle walls and 
enjoyed the pleasant view in all directions by the light of the 
setting sun which cast a cheerful glow over the charming land- 
scape. Few prospects could delight the eye more, but how great 
an increase of interest would be given to it if one could feel that 
these villages and towns were the abode of a Christian people ! 

Tuesday, February "jth. — This morning all the steamers 
were under way betimes for the Land of the Rising Sun, and 
we had hardly gone fifteen miles before the " Saratoga " came in 
sight, she having been seen, it v>^as supposed, by a light the 
night before, when a gun was fired from the flagship. After a 
short stoppage and a visit to the " Susquehanna " by the captain, 
she went on to Napa, leaving some of her cattle and sheep on 
the " Mississippi." By her I had a line from Shanghai, which the 
rebels still had in their possession, but trade was going on pretty 
much as ever, fighting on one side of the town and trafficking 
on the other. 

During the latter part of, the day we came in sight of 
O-sima, the large island lying north of Lewchew and appearing 
in its general features not unlike that island, low, wooded and 
cultivated. Whether it supports as dense a population is 
doubtful. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 99 

Saturday, Febriuiry nth. — We have been highly favored in 
our trip to Japan, having had smooth seas and, for a part of the 
way, fair winds. The high land of Idzu and the islands off the 
Bay of Yedo came in sight this afternoon and a patch of rocks, 
too, which are said not to have been seen on the former trip. 
The winds have become very piercing though the thermometer 
indicates not much more than 40° Fah. As it was toward 
evening the Commodore lay off the mouth, drifting about until 
the morning, although the moon gave sufficient light to see the 
land by. It is a bitter night in the rainy, driving, north winds' 
and we ought to be thankful for protecting mercies. 

Sunday, February 12th. — The steamers were all pressing 
on towards the land which was almost everywhere white with 
snow on the hills. As we neared it below Cape Idzu we erelong 
described two of our ships and ran up a coast none of us were at 
first able to recognize ; and j'udging that Oo-sima or Volcano 
Island was correctly laid down, supposed it to be off Cape King 
on the eastern side of the Bay of Yedo. It was ascertained, 
however, after a time, that we were in the Bay of Simoda where 
the British man-of-war, "Mariner," anchored in 1850; and 
where too we soon learned that the " Macedonian " was ashore. 
Consequently, she must first be got off, and this the " Missis- 
sippi " did, dragging her into deep water, when all the ships lay 
for the night where they were, the " Lexington " coming up in the 
evening from sea. Some towns of considerable size were ob- 
served along this bay, but not many boats were seen, owing 
probably to the cold wind deterring all coming out for mere 
curiosity. The news of our arrival was perhaps made known 
by some of the fires we saw lighted on the beach and hills, but 
more likely by couriers started for the capital. 

Mofiday, February i itJi. — At anchor above Saru-sima. 

• During the night the wind went down, and the bay become 

smooth as could be wished. Towards sunrise one of the most 

glorious scenes ever beheld was to be seen by those who were 

up, but I was not out till after sunrise. Mount Fusi lay right 



lOO A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

before us clothed with a pure mantle of snow, and all the high 
points of the landscape were of the same dazzling white, includ- 
ing the island of Oo-sima, from which the smoke now could 
plainly be seen rising and settling in a lustrous cloud above the 
summit, through which the rays of the sun shed a peculiar bright- 
ness. The shores of the bay were destitute of snow, and the 
dun brown of some parts with the dull green of the pineries 
added other contrasting shades to the snow, rendering the whole 
variegated and beautiful. As the sun rose to view, the tops of 
Fusi and other hills were touched with a roseate hue which dis- 
appeared as it came further up, but the brilliancy of the whole 
compensated for this transitory charm. It was a magnificent 
sight in every respect. 

By noon the six ships, each steamer towing a ship, were 
off the town of Uraga, but the Commodore passed on until he 
came to the American Anchorage some miles above Saru-sima, 
or Monkey Island, where we all anchored, the " Southampton " 
having been already here three days, and often visited by the 
officials with whom Captain Boyle managed to communicate. 
The coast was destitute of snow, but its bleak, dun color gave it 
quite a different aspect, so that one might well doubt its identity. 

In the afternoon, after having dodged here and there for 
an hour or two in pursuit of us, the Japanese officials came off 
to us, four in number, two military men whom we saw last July 
at Kuri hama and ;the two interpreters. They came to the 
" Powhatan " after having visited the flagship, and were received 
in the deck-cabin by Captain Adams. Their chief object was to 
inform us that a person of higher rank was coming aboard to- 
morrow to consult respecting an interview and the reception of 
the Emperor's letter. They wished to know why we had 
anchored so far above Uraga, from which it was a long way for 
them to come, and desired us to go down off that town, at least 
in one vessel, so that we should be more accessible ; this move 
was declined on account of the more secure anchorage at pre- 
sent occupied where there was no fear of winds. Their proposi- 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. lOI 

tion was made evidently only to make it more convenient for 
them to get off to us, though a dislike of our going nearer the 
capital may have had its influence. In windy weather it would 
be a dreary sail for them to come up in open boats from Uraga, 
though they can com.e a good way by land and save the boating. 
They left in good spirits and towards the last intimated that the 
answer to the President's letter would be a favorable one. The 
number of attendants was greater than Yezaimon brought with 
him last year, but all equally well bred as those. 

Tuesday, February \/\tJt. — American Anchorage. 

The official spoken of yesterday came about noon with 
two colleagues. The name ['of the first was Kurokawa Ka- 
hiy5ye, ^ jlj SH ^, and, as near as we could ascertain, he 
filled the post of prefect in the principality of Idzu, resident at 
Uraga, a higher officer than Yezaimon and, from the imperial 
coat of lily-leaf arms worked on his breast under the outer 
tunic, perhaps connected with the supreme government as a 
deputy on its part in this important port. His coadjutors were 
called Yoshioka Motohei, ^ [g] ^ Z|i , and Hirayama Kenziro, 
^ llj ^ Zl ^15 , whose official position we did not learn, but one 
of them was evidently nearly equal in counsel to the principal 
man. More attendants came than yesterday, one of whom was 
a lad who maintained his post close by Kahiyoye amid all the 
confusion, ..holding his master's long sword bolt upright in his 
hand during the long interview. It reminded one of the pages 
of the middle ages whose duties comprised such services. 

After accommodating the party with chairs as well as we 
could, and some of them with other conveniences too, the 
interview commenced with their making an apology for not 
coming sooner by reason of the distance from Uraga, and beg- 
ging us to move at least one of the ships down opposite that 
town for convenience of their going to and fro. It presently 
was evident that these officials came to arranfye about an inter- 
view on shore with an envoy from Yedo who they observed 
had the answer from the Emperor to deliver ; and that as the 



I02 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

President's letter was of £o polite and pacific a character, the 
reply would likewise be favorable, and they hoped we should 
be able to arrange amicably for this interview. They then 
said that Hamakawa, a town in the Bay of Simoda near where 
the " Macedonian " grounded, was a very convenient and large 
place for it, but this town was decidedly rejected. At last they 
intimated that as the town of Uraga had been selected by the 
government at Yedo they had no authority to change it ; though 
they had come to settle the preliminaries of a meeting there. They 
urged that as we had made no objections to the place of meeting 
last season on a barren, uninhabited beach at Kuri-hama, and 
had delivered the President's letter there, and that as Uraga was 
a large town set apart for the proposed interview, where officials 
resided, and where it would be more convenient for them to 
prepare for it, all propriety was in their favor and we ought to 
accede to them and at least move one ship down off Uraga. 
We proposed some place between the ships and Yedo, to which 
they declined, alleging that there was none suitable, and said we 
would state all they had said to the Commodore, which Captain 
Adams did by note. This gave a chance for a respite, and 
they all got up to see the engine and other parts of the ship, in 
which some took an interest in one thing, some in another. Our 
first visitor of last year, Saboroske, was here to-day, and took a 
minute admeasurement and plan of the big gun on the quarter- 
deck ; he seemed to be a secretary and had a convenient set of 
writing tools with him which he used in his hand. Others also 
had these portable writing tools. A few of the visitors came 
into the wardroom where cake and wine were given them ; 
most of the first they wrapped in nose-papers to carry home. A 
comparison of swords vv'ith ours was then made, and they 
seemed pleased that theirs were the shaipest. Many objects of 
.wonder to them were exhibited, but they repressed all exclama- 
tions of surprise and talked little among themselves. 

After a while we were all again seated, and as Perry had 
refused to stir lower down Captain Adams got them to take the 



A JCURNAI. OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. IO3 

proposal ashore that an officer should be appointed with whom 
he would go ashore and select a suitable place, and they might 
return with the answer in two or three days. We suggested 
Kanagawa far up the bay, but that was negatived, and every 
period brought us around again to Uraga as the appointed and 
best place. If we had had one of Joshua's 24-hour sunshine 
days they would doubtless have tarried longer, and seemed at 
last dissatisfied with our refusal to go down the bay and take up 
with their place of meeting. They talked a good deal among 
themselves, but never confusedly, waiting each on the other, 
the two principal ones doing most of the confabulation. 

Among other things they said they hoped no surveying 
parties would go out while negotiations were going on, but this 
desire could only be referred to the Commodore. We had a 
good deal of sport in exchanging cards and autographs, for 
which they seem to have always a strong desire, according to 
all travelers ; their cards are always in running Chinese char- 
acters, if these are to be taken as samples, from two to three 
inches long and one to one and a half inches wide. A variety 
of articles were placed in their capacious bosoms, into which 
they found their way by putting their hand back in their sleeves. 
Some of the party had eight or nine garments on, one over the 
other, and all were clad warmly and all bareheaded. In the 
course of conversation the intepreter said that they understood 
that I was not coming back this year, but I have no idea how 
such an impression was received by them. On the whole the 
interview passed off pleasantly, and our visitors were apparently 
gratified at what they saw. 

Wednesday, Pebruary i^th. — Bay of Yedo. 
Preparations are making on board for receiving the Com- 
modore on board this ship, but he is just now too unwell to 
move about much ; it is rather inconvenient for him to be in 
another ship while negotiations [ift-oceed in this one. The weather 
is pleasant now, cold enough to make it agreeable walking on 
deck for a long time and yet not too cold for writing or reading. 



104 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

The younger interpreter came to-day about two o'clock 
with a party of friends, most of whom had not been aboard 
before, and whose object was chiefly to see the ship. Among 
them was a third interpreter from Nagasaki who spoke con- 
siderable English with a good accent, though he did not talk 
much until we began to go over the ship, when his curiosity 
■was so excited that he had questions to ask as well as much to 
see. The official part of the visit today was to inform Captain 
Adams that in case he wished anything, as wood or water, or 
to call for other officers, if he would send a boat inshore, 
persons would meet him and convey the message. No answer 
was returned about meeting a deputy to consult with him 
relating to the place of interview, and the visit was rather un- 
interesting. The forward deck was well crowded while the 
Japanese were looking at the guns, and another comparison of 
swords was gone through with ; they hold ours in small esteem 
from their being so dull, regarding the metal as inferior. 

Towards evening we remarked a large number of boats 
anchored inshore, at intervals, and a few outside, the whole 
looking like an attenipt at placing guard-boats around us. If 
they persist in this there will be cause of trouble found erelong, 
I fear, for not to do something will render the boats ridiculous 
in their own eyes. The number of boats seen in the bay during 
the day fully equals the number seen last summer, but we are 
now out of the way of the ferry which plies across from Uraga, 
and only a few come around to see the ship. The gulls hover 
around the fleet in numbers, attracted by the oiTal. Onshore 
we can see the people cutting grass and fagots of bushwood 
among the pines, bringing them off in all probability for fire- 
wood. No snow lies on the shores anywhere in sight, but the 
mountains in the distance northwest are snow-capped and 
almost rival Mount Fusi in elevation. 

Thmsday, February 1 6t]i. — Bay of Yedo, 

About two o'clock Tatsnoske and a party of gentlemen 
came on board, none of whom were before in the ship, to my 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPiiDITlON TO JAPAN. IO5 

knowledge. The leading officer was a pleasant but forward 
man and had almost nothing to communicate, the principal ob- 
ject of their visit being to see the ship. They told us that the 
high officer had not yet come from Yedo, but desired us in 
strong terms to move back to Uraga where communication 
could more easily be carried on. They said they were sent to 
beg the commander to take care of his health and to inquire 
after it. In due time the chief man brought out from his bosom 
a parcel of navy buttons which had been given yesterday to 
the boatmen alongside, and had been taken from them and 
now returned in this ridiculous manner. I asked them if they 
deemed us to be children that they trifled so with us, and told 
them such was not the conduct of men and friends towards each 
other. They told me to-day that the siogoun had died in the 
tenth month of last year, but that the nengo of Kayei was still 
continued and this was its seventh year, although a new incum- 
bent had the seat. Such a mode of reckoning must throw his- 
tory and chronology into some confusion ; and '. it shows too the 
duplicity of the people, for no other adequate cause for such a 
step can be assigned than to deceive by confirming the impression 
that the same monarch still reigns. A day or two ago one of 
our visitors told me that the Mikado had resigned, but I did not 
ask him then whether the siogoun was dead, supposing from the 
ncngo being the same that he had not died, as we heard 
reported. One of our visitors to-day was 71 years old, and I 
observed that the Japanese have the same habit of showing their 
fingers to indicate small numbers which the Chinese have. 
Most of the time till after four o'clock was taken up in walking 
about the ship, in visiting the wardroom where Dr. Maxwell 
tried unsuccessfully to electrize them, while others showed them 
pictures, swords, pistols and other things to entertain them, and 
in examining the machinery. Their numerous inquiries to see 
the engine indicate the interest it has excited, and I told them 
that when we reached Yedo the Emperor and his councillors 
must come off to see it also ; the look of doubt and surprise was 



I06 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

all of their answer which came outside. The manners of the 
chief man, whose name I've forgotten, were so pert, and he was 
so disobliging and acted so silly in relation to the buttons that 
the officers in the ship are not inclined to show them any more 
civilities when they come aboard until they exhibit some desire 
or intention to reciprocate. This was particularly offensive in 
this man when he refused to show a pretty bag hanging at his 
girdle containing some kind of medicine. 

There was a grand review and inspection of boats to-day 
which afforded all some entertainment ; perhaps 450 men were 
prepared for action, and the whole fleet made a pretty show. 

A surveying party went out to-day, a few of whom stepped 
on shore and others had intercourse with native boats. The 
conduct of the Japanese Will be tested as this survey of the harbor 
proceeds. 

Friday, February I'jtJi. — To-day was a rainy, chilly day 
and no visitors came off, nor were many boats seen in the bay. 
Whales frequently appear in these waters, probably cows which 
come in here to calve ; some of them have been seen forty feet 
long. Gulls of several colors constantly play around the ship 
attracted by offal. On shore the young wheat, or some other 
green grain, begins to revive the summer garb. 

Saturday, February i%th — Bay of Yedo. 

A small party, of whom Saboroske was the chief man, 
came on board about one o'clock to-day, bringing among 
other news the information that one of the chief councillors 
and his coadjutors had arrived at Uraga, and wished the 
Commodore to go there and receive him and the reply to 
the President's letter. The same reasons were adduced and 
the same objections brought against this step as had been 
repeatedly gone over with ; on this occasion it ended by 
giving them in writing the refusal of the Commodore to go 
down there, but he would send a ship and bring the com- 
missioner up to this anchorage. The name given to the com- 
missioner to-day differs from that handed in on Wednesday, 



A JOURNAL OF THE TERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. IO7 

which was Lin, ;|^ ; now it is Hirayama Kenziro, ^ ll) ^ H 
^|5, and his title is less exalted, being styled Revisor of Docu- 
ments and General Counselor and Director of Affairs of the 
Frontier of Japan, H ;$l ® ^ ^ # |Jf. # ^ ^ H ^. His 
two colleagues have no titles, at least none given to us ; their 
names are Yamamoto Bonnoske, \\\ :^ ^ :^ ^, and Mayeda 
Yotaro, |ij B3 ^ :fc J§5- One might infer from the title of the 
Commissioner that it was given him for this occasion. 

Saboroske brought a box of confectionery to-day, which 
consisted of a few varieties of candied jams of fruits. ?h*s 
activity of mind is remaikable, and he improves on acquaint- 
ance ; to-day he took the measurements of the ship with a fish- 
line, and has previously taken dimensions of the guns on the 
deck and their appurtenances. He seems to be a secretary of 
Yezaimon, but does little else at our interviews than take notes. 
When the party left to-day after taking the written paper, Tats- 
noske was told that the morrow was our Sabbath when we did 
no business. P>om their conduct to-day there is doubtless a 
decided determination to get us back to Uraga, and we shall 
perhaps have to give in and go down there. 

The Commodore moved aboard the " Powhatan " to-day, 
but was too ill to do anything, and suffers a great deal of pain, 
the result of his cold caught on the passage up the bay. The 
" Southampton " went up the bay some five or six miles yester- 
day evening to assist the surveying parties. 

Siinday, February igth. — Bay of Yedo. 

I attended service in the "Mississippi" this morning and heard 
Old Hundred sung by nearly all the ship's company. Notwith- 
standing our desire for quiet Kahiyoye came again about two 
o'clock with a party, bringing a present of radishes, greens, eggs, 
chickens, oranges, confectionery and onions, altogether amount- 
ing to 3000 articles and over. They were given some tea and 
biscuit in return, which they accepted willingly. After a good 
deal of circumlocution, drinking, walking about, counting the 
articles brought, looking at pistols and pictures, and doing other 



I08 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

unimportant things, the rest of the party left the room without 
apparent cause, Tatsnoske alone remaining, who drew his chair 
up and told us confidentially that it was the express command 
of the siogoun to the commissioner' that the interview should be 
at Uraga, and all those interested in the matter on their part 
hoped no impracticable obstacles would be interposed to this 
plan on our part ; for, as the Emperor at Yedo was willing to 
grant all we asked and permit a trade, this opposition would 
only impede what otherwise was likely to go on amicably. 
They understood our reasons for not wisliing to move such 
ships into dangerous places, and would state them to him, and 
also our proposition that he himself should apply for further 
instructions to Yedo, if it were possible to have the place of 
meeting elsewhere. This colloquy was ended by our request 
that what he had told us might be given in writing to-morrow or 
next day, addressing Perry directly so that he might have a 
reliable document. They soon after all departed, leaving us 
under the impression that we shall obtain a great part of what 
we ask for, and this large cumshaw of provisions increases this 
view. 

During the afternoon one of the Japanese complained of 
colic, and Saboroske took out a small box of tutenag having 
three compartments in which were gilt pills, salts and other 
medicines, the neatest homeopathic arrangement you ever saw. 
Taking another pill he mixed it in water and gave it to the 
patient who soon felt relieved ; it was perhaps a preparation of 
opium. The skill of the man in preparing the dose showed that 
he was no novice at it. 

Monday, February 20th. — Bay of Yedo. 

The surveying boats have had considerable friendly inter- 
course with the people along the beach and in boats, to-day and 
on Saturday, and erelong there seems likely to spring up a pleas- 
ant understanding. The people are evidently willing to culti- 
vate kind feelings with their visitors. 

Kaheyoye and his friends came again to-day, bringing a 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. IO9 

letter from Commissioner Lin and a number of his colleagues, in 
which they desired the Commodore to go to Uraga ; in reply he 
proposed to send Captain Adams down in one of the ships and 
bring them up if they wished to come. He stated his intention, 
also^ in his reply, to take the ships up the bay to safer moorings, 
and added that as he was sent to Yedo by his government, to 
Yedo he expected to go, where also he could show the presents 
sent out and exhibit their mode of manipulation. They agreed 
to Captain .'Adams' going down. Kaheyoye also brought a cut 
shell as a private present for Perry who returned a lithograph 
of a steamer that seemed to please the official much. A 
hundred oysters in shells were also brought for Captain 
Adams. The day passed off pleasantly and they seemed gratified 
at the prospect of an amicable settlement and the opening of 
intercourse. Truly, we may say that God has gone before and 
prepared our way among this people, and I hope it is to be for 
their lasting benefit too. If a place of meeting is appointed fur- 
ther up the bay we may hope to reach Yedo, the goal of our 
expectations. 

Tuesday, February 2\st. — Bay of Yedo. 

A deputation of some low-ranked^ officials came off about a 
quarter of eight, a.m., to see if Captain Adams was going to 
Uraga, and to accompany him there, but I did not learn 
whether they intended to take him with them. They wished me 
again and again to go with them, taking me by the sleeve, 
and wishing to ascertain the reason for not making one of 
the party. The " Vandalia " got down near Saru-sima where 
she anchored in the afternoon, a ^violent storm of rain pre- 
venting further progress ; so that the commissioners are likely 
to be kept waiting longer than they perhaps wish. The desire 
of these officials to get an interview at Uraga indicates the mind 
of the court, I think, not to do much to assist us to reach Yedo, 
knowing perhaps that they cannot make us as /' respectfully 
submissive " as their Dutch visitors, and fear they will thereby 
lose caste among the people. 



no A JOURNAL OF THE PERKY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

The people seem to have no such apprehensions, and an in- 
tercourse has commenced among them from the boats sent to 
survey which is plainly a voluntary exhibition of their goodwill 
and laudable curiosity towards " far-traveled strangers." The 
camellias, forty feet high, chestnut trees, a species of Laurus, 
pines, cedars and other plants new to us, all possess unusual in- 
terest on entering a land so long shut out. In fact the gradual 
entrance into so peculiar a land in the way we have come, one 
thing opening after another, is not the least of the charms of the 
Expedition. 

Wednesday, February 2.2nd. — Bay of Yedo. 

I thought that we should be unvisited to-day, but a large 
company of gentlemen came on board about half past nine 
o'clock, a part only of whom had been here before, to hear the 
salute fired by the ships on Washington's birthday. They rambled 
about as they pleased, and all seemed disposed to be entertained. 
One who had often been on board showed me a book of twenty 
leaves giving an account of cannons, guns, revolvers, swords and 
other arms, illustrated with neat and accurate drawings' of each, 
diagrams of their various portions, so that a clear idea could be 
obtained of each implement. It was printed at Yedo last October^ 
and I imagine that much of the information in it is a digest of what 
was seen aboard the " Susquehanna " last summer, though the 
author must have had some European work on gunnery to copy 
his drawings from. It was neatly printed, and the owner declined 
to let me have it on any account. He was carefully examining 
the guns while going through the ship. I endeavored to make 
the principle of the telegraphy which was set up to-day and in good 
operation, intelligible to one or two of our visitors, and made them 
comprehend that ideas could be conveyed along the wires by 
means of the machinery now exhibited, but how it was done was 
the mystery which their partial knowledge and my inaptitude on 
such a topic could not reach. However, what was understood 
is likely to arouse attention. 

The party which went ashore found kind treatment, and 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. I 1 1 

people of all sorts were curious to see the strangers. They went 
into a large village where the women were not behind the men in 
curiosity. Some laborers in a quarry were tattooed or marked 
on the right shoulder, which they pointed out as if it was a dis- 
tinctive mark. The island we call Webster's Island, or Natsu- 
sima, is uninhabited, but affords a pretty ramble. The village 
of Kanezao lies inland west of it, and perhaps is the one visited 
to-day. The general condition of these villagers is not so com- 
fortable, our officers think, as of those Chinese who live about 
Canton. Houses are neatly thatched, mostly of wood or mud. 

Friday, February 24th. — Bay of Yedo. 

Yesterday the wind blew so hard that there was no such 
thing as going ashore, nor did any natives come to the ship. I 
was busy all day in putting the press up and looking up the 
various articles belonging to the printing department which, 
however, are so few as to be of little use, especially the assort- 
ment of type. 

This morning the steamers all weighed anchor to go up the 
bay, leaving the " Macedonian " to wait for the " Saratoga." The 
day was beautiful, and we passed up within a seeing distance of the 
shore, sounding all the time and feeling our way till we reached 
the point attained by the " Mississippi " last summer and anchored. 
The people along shore were much excited by the spectacle, and 
as soon as we stopped, boats containing parties of men and 
women came to look at the strange wheeled craft, many of them 
near enough to get biscuit and other things thrown to them. 
While two or three were thus pleasing themselves and us, a 
government boat came shoving into their midst, driving them off 
with cries, they themselves hastening off in all directions. One 
or two were overhauled and one man soundly thrashed with a 
stick as a'memorial to the others. The Commodore was about 
sending an officer with orders, to be conveyed by Sam Patch, 
that if these government boats drove the people off he would 
drive them off. However, all sorts of boats v/ere soon out of 
our reach, but the incident is not of promising augury in respect 



tl5 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRV EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

to the, feelings of the government at our coming up the bay, 
while it evinces the eagerness of the people. By the evening sun 
Yedo was plainly seen over the point in a northerly direction, 
the city reaching along a hillside and apparently of great area. 
Some of the surveying boats went near enough to see the sea wall 
of the city and its embrasures. This evening many fires are 
seen here and there and hundreds of curtains were stretched 
along the shore, all of which could not be for defenses or troops. 

Saturday^ February 2$th, — Off Kanagawa. 

Captain Adams came back this morning about nine o'clock 
from his visit to Uraga, leaving the " Vandalia " some way down 
the bay. He brought a reply in Dutch and Chinese from the im- 
perial commissioner, signed in the former Hayasi Dai haku kami 
(or Hayasi, the great counsellor prince, or something like this), 
but in Chinese, as Lin, member of the imperial council, alone, 
with no other persons joined with him. At the interview Captain 
Adams asked for the cards of the officers he was talking with, 
but neither of the three were written like the title of the one 
who applied to the Commodore. This letter acknowledged the 
propriety of the reference to European and American customs in 
embassadors from foreign countries repairing to the capitals of 
the country they visited, and there delivering their errands at 
court, but plead its inapplicability to Japan, as the Emperor had 
decided otherwise, that his commissioner must repair to Uraga 
where preparations had been made for the interview, and con- 
cluding by urgently requesting the Commodore to return to that 
place for this purpose. No alternative was, however, proposed 
in the paper in case v/e held out, such as refusing to see Perry 
elsewhere, or anything of a decisive nature. A longer letter 
from our old friend Yezaimon was also brought to Captain 
Adams in which the same things were adduced, no alternative 
being possible ; this last letter was written in a friendly spirit 
and indicated, at least, that the Japanese were not prepared yet 
to break off negotiations in case we refused to go back to 
Uraga. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. Il3 

Captain Adams said that the place arranged was at the edge 
of the town, in a narrow place between two hills of no great 
elevation, one of which had been scarped at considerable outlay 
of labor to accommodate the buildings erected for the interview, 
these last being a few rods only from the shore. The build- 
ings were larger than those at Kurihama and the tables and 
covered trays seen in some of the rooms showed that there were 
to be preparations made for an entertainment on a large scale. 
The meeting with Captain Adams was not long and, after deliver- 
ing the Commodore's letter, turned on the propriety of the 
squadron returning to Uraga and the peremptoriness of the 
siogoun's commands on that point. In reply the same old 
reasons were alleged why the ships could not lie there, instancing 
the bad weather then extant before them all as an argument 
patent to all. Tea, sweetmeats and saki were handed around to 
all, the waiters kneeling when presenting the cups. Those who 
spoke to the prince, or chief officer, humbled themselves like 
slaves, and they were the highest officers who had been on board 
our ships where, however, no one kneeled to them. Such 
abjectness must humiliate the person who does it in his own 
eyes, or, if it does not, it only shows how deeply it has already 
abased him. The interview being over, all returned to the ship, 
though they thought it not unlikely they would have to stay 
ashore all night. Yezaimon sent Captain Adams a small present, 
parts of it proving the low opinion he entertained for us, or else 
showing how debased he was himself. 

On hearing all these points and reading these communica- 
tions, the question of returning to Uraga was discussed, the 
Commodore still holding to his views not to return down the bay 
at any rate. There was a great probability that the Japanese 
would hold off, but it was quite as important for them to obey 
the Emperor in holding the meeting , as it was to have it at 
Uraga. Of course, no one would blame him at Washington or 
elsewhere for finally going back there rather than lose the treaty, 
and every country had the right to choose what way it would 



114 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

receive foreign officials ; but there was yet no risk of losing what 
Hayashi had said the Emperor had decided to grant, and no 
precedent could be drawn from European courtesy and re- 
ciprocal interchange of diplomats to illustrate one's conduct with 
a people which ignored all such relations. I approved the decision 
not to return, though I would rather have gone there than risk 
losing all. Yet I do not at all like the way in which this nation is 
spoken of by the Commodore and most of the officers, calling 
them savages, liars, a pack of fools, poor devils ; cursing them 
and then denying practically all of it by supposing them worth 
making a treaty with. Truly, what sort of instruments does 
God work with ! 

Much to our surprise, Yezaimon and two interpreters, one 
of whom, Namura Gohadjiro, has lately come into action and 
enunciates better than either of the others, came on board. They 
were received in the rear room on account of Captain McClung's 
illness, where tea and toddy and cakes were served as usual. 
He said he had come to get the answer to the letter brought up 
by Captain Adams, and it was promised to be ready by Monday 
noon. Intimations were given that if they would bring us wood 
and water we would pay for it, to which they answered that they 
could be furnished by bringing them up from Uraga, and hoped 
our boats would not go ashore to get them. We rej'oined that 
we were not in need of such supplies and, as we knew wood and 
water could both be procured ashore near us, it was needless for 
them to bring such things from Uraga, and we would not go 
there to get them. They must themselves have seen two days 
ago how rough it was at Uraga and how impossible it would 
have been to receive supplies from off shore. All this talking 
occupied some time, during which several things were exhibited 
and an india-rubber globe which Perry made Yezaimon a pre- 
sent of examined ; he was quite as polite and chatty as usual and 
we were glad to see him, and he apparently to see us. 

Again the question of going down to Uraga was brought 
forward, and declined. " Well, then, can you go ashore near 







u ^ 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. II 5 

here this afternoon and pick out a suitable place? " said he to 
Captain Adams. Thus the whole point was given in, and this 
was doubtless decided on by the commissioner at Uraga as soon 
as he heard the ships had gone up the bay. The manner in 
which it was done showed that Yezaimon was sent up to settle 
a place for the interview before we got any nearer Yedo, but it 
came in during the conversation, as a man gives up a desperate 
case, by a complete turn-round. A place was pointed out in 
shore where he supposed a good spot could be found, and it 
was decided to go immediately, it being now a quarter of three 
o'clock. Captain Buchanan went with Captain Adams in 
another boat, preceded by Yezaimon, and taking a southwest 
direction, we landed about five miles from the ships, sounding to 
ascertain the deepest water, at a hamlet below Kanagawa called 
Yokohama. The Commodore demands a locality which can be 
covered by the shipping. A vacant spot of ground was selected 
near the hamlet, now covered with a promising wheatfield, as 
suitable for the interview ; it was coolly proposed before reach- 
ing this spot to demolish three or four houses in the village to 
make room for the new buildings necessary, Yezaimon seeming 
to think the property of the villagers of not the slightest 
consideration. He was always spoken to by them on their 
knees, none of them wearing swords and showing plainly their 
low condition by their dress and miserable habitations. The 
fields were highly cultivated, but the dwellings indicated little 
thrift, and the village was rendered unsavory by the numerous 
vats, thatched over to retain urine, compost and other manuring 
substances from evaporating, which lined the waysides. Many of 
the dwellings were built of dried mud and straw supported by 
cross joists and beams, a few of boards more neat looking than 
these, if not warmer, and the majority of posts and sliding doors. 
No regularity was observable in the streets or size of the lots 
which, consequently, gave the village the appearance of an in- 
congruous collection of huts and sites, and not nearly so regular 
and pleasing as the villages around Napa. A few houses were 



Il6 A JOURNAL OF TFIE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

tiled, the ridges being smaller than in China and imparting a 
neater look to the roof which, as well as the walls, were white- 
washed white and slate in a pretty manner. The walls of these 
houses were fully two and a half feet longer at the base than at 
the eaves. We saw a machine made of two rollers inserted in a 
frame, having each a short screw at their ends working close in 
each other's thread, intended to clean cotton of its seeds, some 
of which were lying by it. The cotton had a very short staple. 
Many rude presses were seen to press oil from seeds and others 
from fishes, now not in use. One loom for weaving mats, a 
mere frame to stretch the warp on, was observed ; but most of 
the houses were shut up. Hedges of living plants, or more com- 
monly of dried bamboo branches or other trees, surrounded all 
the yards and gave a slovenly appearance to the farmstead, from 
the leaves and broken twigs lying on the ground, added to which 
the farm gear was left scattered in the yard. No windows nor 
chimneys were seen to admit light into the rooms, or for smoke 
to go out. The roofs were nearly the thickness of a foot, made 
of a sort of reed cultivated for the purpose ; a fire breaking out 
in such houses would almost certainly involve all its neighbors in 
its flames. The camellia trees were in full flower and appeared 
beautiful when disposed in hedges ; many trees were just burst- 
ing into leaf. 

In one part of the village a large collection of a hundred 
gravestones led us to ask where the people were buried, and we 
were told that the bodies were placed outside of the village and 
their epitaphs here. Many of the inscriptions were in Chinese, 
and on one recent one I observed many characters resembling 
Tibetan, though I can hardly think they were so, but rather 
charms. Near one of the best dwellings was a domestic shrine 
made with a double door inclosing the adytum in a box some 
four feet high. No paint was seen on any building. 

The men looked healthy and well fed, but the few women 
who let us look at them appeared oddly with their shaven eye- 
brows, and not very tidy. However, the cold weather would 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. IT/ 

induce all to put on whatever clothes their poverty would allow. 
No animals but cats mnd dogs were noticed in the hamlet. 

Sunday, February 2^th. — Rev. Mr. Jones held service on 
board ship to-day, but did not preach. The crew generally 
attended, but the marines were paraded on; the quarter-deck out 
of hearing. For the first time on a pleasant day no Japanese 
came on board. The aspect of our affairs is now promising, and 
I cannot but hope that God will hear the prayers offered by his 
people, answered by the success of our Expedition, The peace- 
ful opening of this country will be to this debased, inquiring 
people a great boon. 

Monday, February 2'jth. — Yezaimon and his friends came 
aboard and, after considerable explanation and illustration, 
obtained an imperfect idea of the telegraph which was put in 
operation for their enlightenment. So mysterious a principle as 
the galvanic current requires more previous knowledge of 
electrical and magnetic powers than these people possess to fully 
understand this mode of application, even if we were enough ac- 
quainted with their language to convey a fair description of the 
machine to them. However, the result was understood, I think. 
Yezaimon brought a bushel of wheat done up in a straw bag as 
a present for Buchanan who had asked him for a specimen on 
Saturday evening. After a while he and his friends went on 
board the "Susquehanna " to see her captain and the working of 
the machinery while going in to the anchorage of Yokohama, and 
every part of the engine was shown which could be, much to 
their entertainment. The cabin furnished a new sight to Yezai- 
mon, as he had no chance to see it last year. The usual variety 
of spirits was served out, cards exchanged and good Vv^ishes 
given and received. Two "of the officers were from Yedo, and 
when I told them we must go with these steamers up to that city 
they said it could not be, that there was not water enough and the 
Government would not allow it. " How can we, who have come 
so far," asked I in return, " stop short of seeing his maj'esty ? " 
It is doubtless disappointing to the court that we have reached 



I 1 8 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

this point, and would have been still more so had Perry only 
gone higher up, as near as he could get. Some of the presents 
of shell work from Ye-sima, not far from Kamakura, an island in 
the Bay of Simoda, belonging to Idzu, given by Yezaimon to 
Captciin Adams were shown, much to our interest ; it is said to 
be manufactured there only and was really a pretty piece of art. 
Some of the glasslike, wiry byssus of the pinna were also seen, 
forming part of this present. 

I went off to the " Susquehanna " at Yezaimon's request in his 
boat. The necessity of removing the official boats from guard- 
ing the ships against the people generally visiting them was 
strongly urged on him. It would be unpleasant to have a 
collision now as we are forming a treaty, or trying to do so. 

Wednesday, March ist. — Off Kanagawa. 

Yesterday no one came on board in the drizzling rain, which 
I fear will now continue for many days, as the new moon has 
come in with a rainy mist. I was engaged all day on the re- 
vision of the treaty. This evening Captain Buchanan gave a 
dinner to Yezaimon and his friends which passed off very well, 
ten of his countrymen sitting down to table with six Americans 
for the first time in the experience of each party. The dinner 
was well served and the Japanese seemed to enj'oy themselves 
like bon vivants; drinking healths and j'oining in the toasts as if 
they were used to it. Yezaimon proposed the health of the 
President in return for that of the Emperor, and the health of 
the Commodore, captains and officers of the fleet in return for 
his own, in all respects acting with perfect propriety. This 
officer certainly exhibits a breeding and tact in all the novel posi- 
tions in which he is placed that reflects great credit on him and 
shows the culture of the social parts of the Japanese character. 
All of the guests except Saboroske behaved well, but his restless 
curiosity and impudence led him up and down the room at a 
great gait — putting on Captain Buchanan's cap and looking at 
himself in the glass, hopping behind Yezaimon to take notes, 
bawling across the table, asking the English name for this thing 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 1 9 

and that, and making himself conspicuous as a braggart can. 
Yet his cleverness shines through all his quirks, even if he did 
pour out a glass of sweet oil to drink it for wine. All the 
guests took parts of the dinner home in their nose papers, wrap- 
ping turkey, pie, asparagus, ginger sweetmeats and other things 
one after the other ; Namura added two spoonfuls of syrup to 
his ginger and thrust the parcel in his bosom. Altogether it 
was a good move, I think, and after dinner they soon returned 
home at sunset, inviting me to go and spend the night ashore, 
which, however, I thought best to decline on account of the 
work just now on hand. Before parting one of them sung a 
song to which another added the refrain or chorus, but such 
music ! The Japanese can be no better than the Chinese if such 
singing pleases their ears. 

Thursday, March 2nd. — Off Kanagawa. 

No officials came near the ship to-day, and the guard boats 
which have rowed round the ships to prevent natives coming 
near us have disappeared, though doubtless the restrictions are 
as close as ever, given from on shore, as no boats come near us. 
The draft of the treaty we propose for them to accept is nearly 
ready, and also Perry's letter to accompany it, a specimen of 
diplomatic special pleading and foreshortening quite refreshing to 
a beginner, though what is said is well enough, the points 
which are untouched being the completion of the whole subject. 
In the evening I accompanied Captain Adams on shore to see 
about the progress of the houses, arrange how to land the 
escort and get a walk if we could. There are five buildings, 
the materials being the same as those employed at Uraga which 
have been transported hither. They are to be shingled, and the 
floor matted ; and several rooms like cloisters intimated their 
supposition that it would be necessary to remain in the buildings 
some days. They are cheap affairs and ought to revert to the 
unlucky owner of the despoiled wheatfield as a compensation for 
his crop. A flag was fluttering in front inscribed Goyio, :f^ ^, 
to intimate that government had applied its power, and on the 



120 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

limits was another marker called Go-yio chio, ^ ^ ^, or 
Arena used for the Emperor. Many villagers came down to 
see us, but a high officer from Yedo happening to arrive while 
we were there, the crowd drew off to see him. This magnate 
was followed on foot by a sword-bearer and shield-bearer, but 
we happened to be too far off to see him plainly. No such thing 
as a ramble was possible while so many officials were near, and 
we soon left. 

Friday, Marcli 'i^rd. — Yezaimon ate and drank so much at 
Buchanan's dinner he was unable to come off to the ship as 
requested last night. A new and superior interpreter came with 
Saboroske, named Moriyama Yenoske, who had recently 
returned from Nagasaki, whence he arrived in twenty-five days 
and hurried on at that. He speaks English well enough to 
render any other interpreter unnecessary, and thus will assist our 
jntercourse greatly. He inquired for the captain and officers of 
the " Preble," and asked if Ronald McDonald was well, or if we 
knew him. He examined the machinery and at last sat down at 
dinner in the ward room, giving us all a good impression of his 
education and breeding. Saboroske brought a native map of 
the bay and region contiguous which was copied while he was 
on board. His principal business was to let us know the 
" Saratoga " was off the coast, to bring back a hammer found float- 
ing and to arrange respecting watering the ships. He says the 
houses on shore will not be ready for three days yet, so that we 
shall all have time enough to get ready. I suspect the nearness 
to Yedo will bring many spectators from thence. 

Saturday, March /[th. — Off Kanagawa. , 

A party came to-day for the purpose of bringing an answer 
from the " Saratoga," which vessel anchored this evening. They 
remained on board almost two hours, drinking and eating, giving 
me at the same time some practice in talking with them, though 
I got no information from them of any importance. Their chief 
design was to get something to eat and a glass of toddy, if one 
might J* udge of their liking for the refreshments. One of them 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 121 

took drawings of all the parts of a revolver, chiefly by rubbing 
india ink on a piece of thin paper laid over the things he wished 
to sketch. 

This party afterward repaired on board the " Mississippi " 
and there got some more drink. Mr. Spalding was showing 
one of them a prayer book, and, as he turned over the pages, he 
came to a plate containing a cross drawn prominendy, where- 
upon he dropped the book as if it had been a hot coal. Pity 
'tis that this symbol is associated in their minds with all that is 
treacherous, dreadful and forbidden. 

Sunday, March sth. — Off Kanagawa. 

Notwithstanding our request, Yezaimon, Moriyama Yenos- 
ke, and others came to-day. It is of little importance to them 
that it is our Sunday, for we still receive them ; they ought to be 
refused if the fourth commandment was held in Jewish respect, 
but what would then be said ? Yezaimon had recovered from 
his dinner the other evening and appeared in usual health. He 
said he would come to-morrow and, after examining the tele- 
graph, would return on shore with Captain Adams to examine 
the house at Yokohama. He asked the number of Perry's 
escort which was placed at thirty officers and a guard similar to 
last year's, but w^as told that no refreshment need be provided for 
the guard. The flags we wished to make for doing honor to the 
siogoun and Commissioner Hayashi were minutely explained to 
him, and he promised to furnish the diagrams for both, and also 
a list of the officials and high personages to whoin presents ought 
to be given by us, illustrating both these requests from us by 
telling him that if he was in America he would wish to learn such 
things to avoid blunders. The credentials of Hayashi were also 
demanded to be brought off far inspection by the Commodore, 
his own being already in their hands, just as those of the Prince 
of Idzu were shown last year. A mark of confidence in us 
would be given this year, for they know us better now, in that 
no Japanese troops would be marshaled, and we again assured 
him that the guard was merely to do honor to the occasion. 



122 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

A request was made that if any vessels appeared on the 
coast, as Perry expected some, pilots might be sent off and he 
informed of their arrival. Yezaimon wished to know how much 
coal we should annually want, where we wished a port and what 
sort of provisions. It was replied that no one could tell how 
much coal would be needed, but a port on the southern coast, 
accessible by ships passing on to China or California, where 
such provisions as they had could be also obtained, would be 
wanted. He said the most ^and best coal came from Kiusiu, 
little from Nippon, and none from Sikokf. The Russians were 
supplied with some which was pronounced pretty good. Many 
of these items and requests, especially that relating to the ports 
needed, were deferred to the Commodore's decision ; they were 
only fishing for answers on the principal points, I think, so that 
they might frame their replies. 

Monday, Mmxh 6th. — Yezaimon and his company brought 
off the copy of the commissioner's credentials and his em- 
blazonry, as he promised yesterday ; the latter was given on one 
of his excellency's crape overcoats, brought for accuracy. The 
list of persons to whom presents are due officially consisted of 
him and his three associates preceded by the six councillors ; 
but what a cloud of obscurity rests over the distribution 
of these things to them, from our utter ignorance of the 
persons here named ! The day of meeting was fixed for the 
8th, and, after minutely examining the telegraph and the ship, 
Yezaimon left in Captain Adam's boat for shore to examine the 
house and its capabilities. While on board Sam Patch* was 
brought before him and questioned a little as to his antecedents, 
but the poor boy was in such a paroxysm of trepidation that he 
hardly knew what he did or ought to do. Prostrate on the 
deck, he murmured some incoherent words, and could not be 
induced to stand up, so terrified did he become under the stern 
eye of Yezaimon who hardly deigned to look at him. I suspect 
the Japanese stand in more awe, and are more abjectly submis- 
* One of the shipwrecked Japanese sailors in the " Morrison " party. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 123 

sive, than even the Chinese when before their rulers and mag- 
nates. The company to-day was a pecuHarly sociable one, and 
I was talking with them all the time, acquiring words and 
practice. 

In the evening I made a visit to the " Saratoga " where I 
found the officers much less ill than I was afraid, from what I had 
heard of their cases. Mr. Wayne is the most of an invalid, and longs 
to get home ; this homesickness is the attendant of men-of-war much 
more than I ever supposed, a natural result of the monotonous 
life led and the constant dwelling on the scenes of home. 

Tuesday, March Jth. — The principal business of to-day has 
been the arrangement of the presents in due divisions according 
to the list of officers given to us, separating for the siogoun all 
those articles intended for him by the government, with others of 
less value, and distributing to the Empress, the six councillors 
and the four commissioners such things as the squadron can 
furnish. 

Yezaimon came about two o'clock to ascertain more partic- 
ulars respecting the escort and time of starting, and, what con- 
cerned himself quite as much, to get some of our cake and wine, 
in which these islanders show an entire belief. From this he 
and Moriyama went to pay Captain Buchanan a visit. 

Wednesday, March ?>th. — The Commodore's usual good for- 
tune attended him to-day in a fine, clear day, not overmuch cold 
either. In the morning we observed a long line of curtains on 
the beach, and a row of posts each side of the house on shore 
extending down to the water, with curtains stretched along, and 
inclosing the space in front so as to exclude all the view. This 
rather annoyed the Commodore, since it looked like fencing us 
in, as had been done at Uraga with boards, which we desired 
not to be erected ; and he sent Captain Adams and me to 
have them taken down. In fact, these curtains are designed 
entirely for show, and to do honor to an occasion ; but Perry 
wants honor to be given in his own style or not at all. A fair 
breeze soon took us ashore, and half a dozen officials came 



124 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

down to the pier which the workmen were laying of sand bound 
up in straw bags to see what we wanted. A few remarks from 
tliem showed that they feared the Commodore was sick, or 
something else had happened to prevent the meeting. I told 
them that he expected to be ashore at noon, and we had come 
to see the place beforehand, the jetty for landing, etc., and 
suggested that as there would be over thirty boats the curtains 
on each side had better be removed to allow more room along 
the beach for them to arrange. Instantly, the whole curtain 
was folded up, the stakes and ropes removed, and a clear 
beach for landing presented. So the Commodore had his way 
in this, and I think it was a good move, for thus no obstacle 
was placed in the way of a view or a ramble ; but I put it alt 
on the ground of a small space for boats, and this satisfied them. 
The rapidity with which the "fortifications " disappeared greatly 
amused the people on board ship. 

Yezaimon and his party came on board about ten o'clock 
to conduct the party on shore, and amused themselves with the 
sailors and looking at the gay dresses of the marines. As 
usual, Saboroske was flying about, crying out at the top of his 
voice from whatever place he happened to be in. The various 
ships sent their boats first to the flagship, and by half past 
eleven all of the guard and officers were ashore, the Commodore 
leaving at noon under a salute from the " Macedonian." On 
reaching the shore, the band struck up, and, passing through 
the lines of the guard attended by Kaheyoye, the whole party 
went up to the reception hall v^here Perry met the five com- 
missioners standing in a row in front of a screen of blue silk ; 
we bowed to them, and the whole then filed around and sat on 
a bench covered with red cloth, while we were also accommo- 
dated on a similar bench opposite, the whole company disposing 
themselves along two rows with a low bench before them to 
serve for a table. Yenoske then separately introduced each 
commissioner, and a few others, to the Commodore, after which 
the former retired, each followed by his sword bearer ; a plate 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 12$ 

of candy was set before each with tea and fire for smoking. 
The centre was occupied by a few brasiers on stands, but there 
was no need of them and little heat in them. Soon after the 
confectionery and tea had been served to all, the commissioners 
returned, and invited Perry and his suite to enter a side room 
where Commissioner Lin had us all seated and, after a few 
compliments, brought out the Emperor's answer to Fillmore's 
letter, written on a few pages of coarse paper. It acceded to 
the demands for good usage of shipwrecked sailors, and supplies 
of provisions for ships needing them, and offered a port for 
trade, to be chosen by us, and a supply of coal to be there 
delivered as soon as we needed it. Five years were needed to 
complete their arrangements for trade at this port, but traffic 
in articles could be commenced soon. 

A Dutch translation was handed in, but the original was 
not given at this time, as they had no signed copy with them. 
Our draft of a treaty and explanatory letter were handed to 
them, and the desirableness of their forming a treaty with us, 
which would fix our international relations with them on a clear 
basis, fully dilated on. Notes of several things to be considered 
were then handed to them, and they are to reply in writing. 
Moriyama was on the floor, shuffling from one side to the other, 
while these men regarded him with undisturbed countenances 
and spoke to him in a very low voice. Yezaimon, Kaheyoye 
and Tatsnoske were in the room, the latter crouching on hands 
and knees. What respect can a man have for himself in such a 
position ? 

The chief commissioner was an unintellectual looking man, 
dressed plainly in dark silk. The second is a gross, sleepy 
looking man, as much unlike a prince as if he was a chimney- 
sweeper, his next in rank taking the shine off all of them by his 
green trowsers and their gilt emblazonry, he having his coat-of- 
arms worked on each calf so as to be conspicuous. It was this 
man who met the party at Uraga, appearing there even brighter 
than on this occasion. The fourth and fifth commissioners said 



126 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

almost nothing, and did not present anything attractive ; all of 
them doubtless looked at us as carefully as we at them, regard- 
ing us with more interest, doubtless, as they had more at stake. 

We were entertained by the two princes while the others 
went out to look at the papers. Two trays of fish differenUy 
dressed, surrounded with boiled seaweed, walnuts, carrots 
shredded fine, and eggs, were served, with saki, tea, soy and 
vinegar. As little salt was used as by the Lewchewan cooks, 
yet the viands were not badly tasted, and I had a fresh supply 
of the kurumi, or walnut seeds, which tasted very pleasantly, 
A decanter and glasses were brought in, with Madeira wine, 
which were obtained doubtless of the Dutch. No great outlay 
was made for to-day's entertainment, if this was the criterion-; 
but it evidenced good feeling on the part of the Japanese, and 
was a vast advance on last summer's meeting. 

When the other commissioners returned they were all 
invited to dinner, and accepted the invitation finally, as soon as 
the intimation was given that the machinery would be set agoing 
for them. The case of the death on board of the " Mississippi " 
was then introduced, and a request made that a place be set 
apart for interment. First, they wished to know whether the 
deceased was an officer ; then they requested that we take the 
body to Uraga, whence they would take it to the burial ground 
at Nagasaki. This being denied and Perry proposing Natsu- 
sima, they raised scruples respecting the proprietary of the land, 
.and, after a deal of backing and filling agreed to let the body be 
buried ashore to-morrow, they sending guides to point out the 
location. All this discussion took up three quarters of an hour* 
and allowed the officers outside to see a good deal of the 
neighborhood, some of them walking a mile or more. 

Nothing could be obtained from the commissioners res- 
pecting leave to go ashore, and the replies to this and other 
points in the notes were to be given soon. I have given the 
leading points in this interview, but the slowness of the inter- 
communication, through Dutch too, prolonged it to weariness. 



A journal; OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 12/ 

While we were inside, the crowd of Japanese outside entertained 
itself with the guard, the officers and the music, and got on very- 
well together. There w^ere about seven hundred foreigners on 
shore and lying off. After looking at the long shed for the 
presents, which required a new roof before it would be safe, 
Perry and his suite went off. When he landed salutes were 
fired in honor of the Emperor and Commissioner Lin, a mark 
of respect the latter seemed to understand ; these were fired by 
the boats. 

Escorts of Japanese soldiers, crossbow-men, matchlock-men 
and servants were standing around the building, but the crowd 
was never in the way, and both parties mingled freely with each 
other. The meeting passed off pleasantly in every respect, and 
towards evening a dozen boxes of oranges and casks of spirits 
were sent off to the flagship for distribution. 

TJiursday, March gth. — Moriyama and Kaheyoye, the 
deputies from the commissioners, came about half past one, 
P.M., to deliver a certified copy of the answer read to us 
yesterday, and a Dutch translation. It is a mean looking style 
to return the answer to the magnificent boxes in which Fillmore's 
was handed them, though this matters little to the contents. 
These papers were handed to the Commodore, and a short time 
allowed for dinner, during which some good daguerreotypes 
of the visitors were taken, and then we went off to the " Missis- 
sippi " to consult on business. The deputies had Hiraiyama 
Kenzhiro for their advisor and secretary, but yesterday he acted 
an equal part with Kaheyoye, and must hold high office. The 
chief matters settled were : the landing of the presents on 
Monday ; the best way of procuring provisions through a 
purveyor who was to bring them all to one ship, where they 
would be paid for, weighing coin against coin, equal weight 
being equal value ; and the nature of the presents we wish in 
exchange for ours. We talked about ports to be opened ; the 
place whence the cannel coal they had brought us was obtained ; 
the desirableness and objections to our going ashore to walk ; 



128 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

and need there was on our part for patience in this negotiation 
which to them was so novel and heretofore so opposed to their 
laws. The princes and commissioners are unacquainted with 
us and our customs, and much of our success depends on the 
first steps. 

While still in session, the funeral boats returned, Yezaimon 
coming back with them. The grave was dug near the burial 
ground of Yokohama, and, after Mr. Jones had gone through 
his services, a Buddhist priest who had joined the procession, 
all shaven and shorn, and in a yellow surplice of a fine quality, 
went through his services, having brought his bell and candle, 
saki, incense sticks and all his furniture to join in this Christian 
burial. His ritual was much the same as in China, and all 
present, including over two thousand spectators, regarded it all 
in quiet interest, somewhat doubting, perhaps, what they would 
see next. Thus did the United States marine, Williams, occupy 
his narrow bed within fifteen miles of Yedo, where Gongiu-sama 
declared once that no Christian should ever come ; yea, that 
even the God of the Christians should die, if he came. Thus 
are old things passing away in Japan. Mr. Jones thinks he has 
done a great achievement. 

Names of the Six Members of the Imperial Council 

AND the Commissioners appointed to meet 

Commodore Perry at Yokohama. 

Matsusaki Michitaro. 

Udono, Mimbu Shiyoyu, assistant in the 

Board of Population or Revenues. 
Izawa, prince of Mimasaki, in Sanyuto, w. 

of Miaco. 
Ido, Tsus-sima no kami, prince of islands 

near Corea. 
Hayashi, dai gaku no kami, one of the high 

councillors. 



fei!€fi±gis 


%%w.'^%^}?m 


\fmm^^ 


^ ^ n- .r; ^ 


y^ -KW^x 



At JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 29 

1^ S $S # ^ Naiito, prince of Ki, in Nankaitu. 
/Mti: :;fc ^n ^ Kuzhei, prince of Yamato, near Idzumi. 
^ zp. ^^'-^ Matsudaiira, Tga's prince ; east of Kaga, 
^^^U ^^ Matsudaiira, prince of Idzumi, opposite 

Ohosaka city. 
^ 5f lii HM tP Makino, the prince of Bizen in Sanyuto. 
PrI nH5 # # tI^ Abe, the prince of Ishi, in the division of 
Tokaido. 

Friday, March \otli. — Off Kanagawa. 

The answer to the reply dehvered by Hayashi has been 
translated to-day, and in it, while Perry is pleased that the 
Japanese government has granted what Fillmore asked for, 
which was all the Cabinet at Washington expected to obtain, he 
says that it is by no means all lie wants, nor all the President 
intended, and " will not satisfy his views." The letter last year 
asked for one port ; now Perry wants five. That desired the 
Japanese to give assurances of good treatment ; now Perry 
demands them to make a treaty, and threatens them in no 
obscure terms with a "larger force and more stringent terms 
and instructions," if they do not comply. The Japanese may be 
disposed to comply, but they may not. Yet what an inconsis- 
tency is here exhibited, and what conclusion can they draw from 
it except that we have come on a predatory excursion? I 
hardly know just the position in which to place such a document 
as this, but the estimation of its author is not dubious. Perry 
cares no more for right, for consistency, for his country, than 
will advance his own aggrandizement and fame, and makes his 
ambition the test of all his conduct towards the Japanese. Yet 
if they will, either from fear, from policy, or from inclination to 
learn and see more of their fellowmen, open their ports and for 
once do away with the seclusive system, great good to them 
will result, their people will be benefited, and the stability even 
of the state increased, perhaps. Yet I despise such papers as 
this drawn up this day, and it may defeat its own object ; it 
certainly has lowered the opinion I had of its author. 



130 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN, 

Tatsnoske came to-day to see whether the presents would 
be ready, and to inquire respecting the supplying of water. If 
he came for wine and cake he was disappointed. We have given 
the visitors a large feasting, and it is time they reciprocated it. 
The arrangements respecting provisions are not very simple, but 
the supply of such a squadron where the interpreters are few is 
likely to he tedious, even if this part of the country has enough 
— a doubtful matter. 

Saturday, March i \tJi, — Captain Adams took the papers 
ashore to-day and continued there consulting and arranging with 
Kaheyoye about the provisions and disposal of the presents. 
These are now all put up ready for transmission on Monday, 
and form a large collection, though not very valuable. I have 
had the chief management of their preparation, and the vexatious 
manner in which Perry can annoy those under him without 
himself caring for the perplexity he occasions makes me glad 
that I never was disciplined to the navy, where undistinguishing 
obedience is required. One gets into such a heartless way of 
doing everything that the whole soul gets callous ; praise is 
never given when a thing is done well, and scolding plentifully 
administered annuls all desire to exert one's self to please a 
superior. 

Sunday, March 12th. — The weather during the weeks we 
have been in this bay has been delightful, on the whole as 
healthy, I suppose, as any climate in the world. To-day has 
been cool and clear (thermometer about 42° F.), and as bracing 
as any temperature I ever felt. My health is good, and I have 
enough to do ; my situation is not disagreeable, and I am mostly 
my own master — why should not my heart praise God for all 
his loving kindness, so infinitely beyond my deserts, and all the 
promises given in his dear Son ? Mr, Bittenger prayed and 
read a chapter to-day, the Commodore having such a tenderness 
for the crew that he would not keep them on deck in the cold 
long enough to hear a sermon ! He himself attended, but 
McCluney keeps away. Yet even this slight religious service, 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO. JAPAN. I 3 1 

which rightfully ought to be held daily, if a crew was properly 
taught, is made the subject of ridicule and scorn by officers and 
. men, so. perverse are they. 

Monday, March 1 3//^. — By eleven o'clock this morning all 
the presents destined for the Emperor and his councillors and 
the five commissioners were landed or on the beach ready to 
take ashore. Unfortunately, the day was rainy, and the marines 
and officers were unable to do more than salute Captain Abbot 
as he came ashore, and accompany him into the house, when 
the former retired to the shed. Most of the presents were 
landed without injury and placed under cover, the agricultural 
•implements forming the largest bulk. The engine and telegraph 
require some preparation to show them. 

The presents for the Emperor were as follows : — 

One 1/4 size miniature steam engine, track, tender and 
car. 

Telegraph, with three miles of wire and gutta percha 
wire. 

One Francis' copper Life Boat. 

One surf-boat of copper. 
/;'. Collection of agricultural implements. 

1;; ... Audubon's Birds, in nine vols. 

Natural History of the State of New York, 16 vols. 

Annals of Congress, 4 vols. 

Laws and Documents of the State of New York. 

Journal of the Senate and Assembly of New York. 

Lighthouse Reports, 2 vols. 

Bancroft's History of the United States, 4 vols. 

Farmers' Guide, 2 vols. 

One series of United States Coast Survey Charts. 

Morris' Engineering. 
: Silver-topped dressing case. 

8 yards scarlet broadcloth, and ps. scarlet velvet. 

Series of United States standard yard, gallon, bushel, 
balances and weights. 



132 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

Quarter cask of Madeira. 

Barrel of whiskey. 

Box of champagne and cherry cordial and maraschino. 

Three lo cent boxes of fine tea. 

Maps of several states and four large lithographs. 

Telescope and stand in box. 

Sheet-iron stove. 

An assortment of fine perfumery, about 6 dozen. 

5 Hall's Rifles, 3 Maynard's Muskets, 12 Cavalry 

Swords, 6 Artillery Swords, i Carbine and 20 
Army Pistols in a box. 

Catalogue of New York State Library and of Post- 
offices. 

Two mail bags with padlocks. 
For the Empress : — 

Flowered silk embroidered dress. 

Toilet dressing-box gilded. 

6 dozen assorted perfumery. 
For Commissioner Hayashi : — 

Audubon's Quadrupeds. 

4 yards scarlet broadcloth — a clock— a stove— a rifle. 
Set of Chinaware — teaset ; a revolver and box of 
powder. 

2 dozen assorted perfumery — 20 gallons of whiskey — 

a sword. 

3 boxes IOC fine tea — box of champagne — i box of 

finer tea. 
For Abe, prince of Ishi, first councillor : — 
One copper lifeboat. 
Kendall's War in Mexico and Ripley's History of that 

war. 
Box of champagne— 3 boxes fine tea — 20 gallons 

whiskey. 
I clock — I stove — I rifle — i sword — i revolver and 

powder. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 33 

2 dozen assorted perfumery. 
4 yards scarlet broadcloth. 
For Makino, prince of Bizen, second councillor : — 

Lossing's Field Book of Revolution — lo gallons 

whiskey. 
Cabinet of Natural History of New York — i lithograph, 
I clock — I revolver — i sword — i rifle — i dozen 
perfumery. 
For Matsudaiira, prince of Idzumi, third councillor: — 
Owen's Architecture — 12 assorted perfumery. 
View of Washington and plan of the city. 
I clock — I rifle — i sword — i revolver — 10 gallons 
vviskey. 
For Matsudaiira, prince of Iga, fourth councillor ; — ■ 
Documentary History of New York. 
Lithograph of a steamer. 
12 assorted perfumery. 

I clock — I sword — i rifle — i revolver — 10 gallons 
whiskey. 
For Kuzhei, prince of Yamato, fifth councillor : — 
Downing's Country Houses. 
View of San Francisco — 9 assorted perfumery. 
I revolver — i clock — i rifle — i sword — 10 gallons 
whiskey. 
For Naiito, prince of Ki, sixth councillor : — 
Owen's Geology of Minnesota and maps. 
Lithograph of Georgetown, D,C, 10 gallons whiskey. 
I clock — I rifle — i revolver — i sw^ord — 9 assorted 
perfumery. 
For Ido, prince of Tsus-sima, second commissioner: — 
Appleton's Dictionary, 2 vols, 9 assorted perfumery. 
Lithograph of New Orleans. 5 gallons whiskey — box 

of tea. 
I sword — I rifle — i revolver — i clock — box of 
of cherry cordial. 



134 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

For Izawa, prince of MimasakI, third commissioner : — 
Model of life-boat. 

View of steamer " Atlantic." 5 gallons whiskey. 
I rifle — I revolver — i clock — i sword — 9 assorted 

perfumery. 
Box of cherry cordial — small box of tea. 
Brass howitzer and two carriages. 
For Udono, fourth commissioner : — 
List of post-offices — box of tea. 
Lithograph of elephant — 9 assorted perfumery. 
I rifle — I revolver — i clock — 5 gallons whiskey. 
I sword — box of cherry cordial. 
For fifth commissioner : — [Matsusaki Michitaro]* 

Lithograph of a steamer — i revolver — 6 assorted 

perfumery. 
I clock — I sword — 5 gallons whiskey — box of tea 
and cherry cordial. 
These things were all arranged in the hall after the collation 
of tea and other eatables was over, and Captain Abbot delivered 
them in the Commodore's name on the part of the United States 
government, and the commissioners gave thanks for them ; they, 
however, restrained all expression of interest in them, and 
really knew almost nothing of what they were. The whole 
affair passed off very well, and if the sky had not wept so much 
it would have been a more interesting " funciao " than that of 
Wednesday last. 

Tuesday, -March 14///. — A boat's load of us went ashore 
this morning to open out and mark the presents, while others 
were to exhibit and prepare the agricultural implements, the 
telegraph, steam-engine and books. My errand was to open all 
the books and, with the aid of one of the Japanese, to ■ write the 
presentation. He declined to break a single seal, and preferred 
that I should make out another triglott list which he would send 

* Called by the Commodore " rather an equivocal character," and thought 
by him to be the Government spy upon the others. [^Narrative, p. 347-) 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 35 

in. Consequently, I had almost nothing to do, and after lun- 
cheon Dr, Morrow and I slipped out behind the house and 
reached the nearest hills beyond Yokohama without attracting 
the notice of any of our officials. Having attained this ridge, 
we started off into the country, selecting the copses and wooded 
hillsides as most likely to afford flowers and new plants. We 
rambled from one woodside to another, crossing fields of wheat 
and brassica to reach them, and found a few in flower ; but we 
were rather too early, the old grass and leaves not yet being 
freshened by the coming heats of spring. The wheat was seen 
in great luxuriance growing in the richest, blackest soil I ever 
saw, and cultivated everywhere in rows by drilling. The land- 
scape was beautiful, indicating great fertility and culture ; from 
these hilltops few or no houses were seen, no farmsteads or 
hamlets, but here and there a laborer or woodcutter working 
s6litarily, far away from their homes. There were few birds to 
be seen, pigeons and crows forming the chief part. The trees 
were beginning to swell, and in a week or more the country will 
begin to assume the hue of summer. We rambled along for 
several miles feeling as if we were let out of school, when we 
approached the seashore and descried a long village beneath us 
and a road leading to it, to' which last we descended, avoiding 
the village. The charming prospect from this elevated point, 
joined to the idea of its having heretofore been hidden to all 
foreign eyes, rendered it one not soon to be forgotten. The 
high degree of tillage showed, too, that Japan hereabouts is able 
to support, and does, a dense population. Our list of plants 
procured was small, but among them was a kind of fern I never 
saw before, and perhaps new.* 

Coming down into the road, we were presently taken in 
tow by a gay dressed watch-officer whose guardhouse lay so as 
to examine everybody going in and out of the village, and 



* Two new ferns were discovered by these collectors in Japan. One hitherto 
unknown variety of clematis was named after the author •' Clematis Williamsii " 
by Asa Gray. 



136 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

accompanied us towards Yokohama. He was a pleasant fellow 
and willingly told us everything, stopping as we stopped, and 
behaving kindly to all he met. The whole population of course 
sallied out to see us, for we now crossed a large, fertile valley, 
where every person could see us from all sides, and civilly were 
they behaved too. No flowers to speak of were seen except 
Camellias and Peaches, of which they gave us branches, and 
thus we went on towards Yokohama, escorted all the way by 
one and another warden of the paths, everybody being as social 
and happy at seeing us as possible. I did what talking I could, 
and asked such questions as I knew how. When near Yoko- 
hama one of our officials came up behind us puffing and sweat- 
ing, telling us he had been a long way after us and rubbing the 
perspiration from his brow. I begged him not to inj'ure himself 
by overfatigue, but to help us find some violets on the bankside, 
which he did, and we soon were merry together. In the village 
he procured a cotton gin to show Dr. Morrow its principle of 
working, and cleaned a few seeds ; it consists merely of two 
rollers working on screws made at their ends, the threads of 
which interlock. On reaching the house Yezaimon was waiting 
for us, everybody having been sent for to return on board, and 
very politely accompanied us to the ship. 

Wednesday, March \$th. — While Kaheyoye was in con- 
ference yesterday with Captain Adams, a messenger came off in 
haste on board the " Mississippi " to inform him that some of 
our officers were committing excesses on shore and going off 
toward Yedo in haste. On this being reported. Perry issued 
an order for all the ofTficers and men on shore to repair on board 
instandy, firing a gun to add energy to the command, I suppose^ 
for all who could receive the order could hear the gun. Only 
three were out of hearing, Bittenger, Morrow and I, and a note 
was dispatched for the former who had gone as far as Kawasaki 
and had caused all this hubbub among these " insulars." He was 
overtaken and, on receiving the order, came back to the ship 
about nine o'clock, having been well received by the people at 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 13/ 

every place he came to. His stones of what he saw are some- 
what doubtful, at least until further corroboration ; but the walk 
was an interesting one and showed the good temper of the 
people and the timidity of the government. In consequence of 
the order, a guard of four marines was landed this morning, and 
we all felt like prisoners ; the entire squadron is out against poor 
Bittenger for putting all the officers in quarantine, as there was 
likelihood of their going ashore in a few days ; but I doubt if the 
Japanese are likely to grant permission, though they would not 
interfere to stop us. 

We were busied in arranging the steam-engine, laying the 
track ; translating the list of presents formed my business. Part 
of them were carried away to-day; the Emperor's remain no 
longer. Mr. Brown took a few daguerreotypes, and the working 
of the garden engine amused us all for a time. On coming back 
in the evening, I had the draft of the treaty the Japanese propose 
in return for ours to translate. It is in eight articles, and pro- 
poses to commence a trade at Nagasaki the first of next Japanese 
year in coal, provisions and fuel, to be paid for in coin ; and to 
open another port in five years after ; no permission to be given 
to go about, and shipwrecked sailors and vessels are guaranteed 
protection and transmission of themselves and such property as 
is saved to their countrymen. Concerning trade at Napa and 
Matsmai, there is no permission, but the phrase is, " We cannot 
now cavil at it." This would intimate that the latter place was 
more independent than we had supposed, and perhaps the whole 
of Yesso is ruled by a tributary prince, as I.ewchew is. The 
treaty is by no means well worded, and leaves many points open, 
though its framers doubtless mean to settle them themselves. 
Art. I. — When ships of the United States come to Naga- 
saki they shall be supplied with wood, water, pro- 
visions and coal ; and if they lack anything else for 
their necessities it shall be supplied them as far as we 
have it. The time for this going into effect is during 
the first month of next year ; after five years we will 



158 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

open another port for their accommodation. Note. — 
We may mention that the prices of these things shall 
be according to those paid by the Dutch and Chinese, 
and that they shall be exchanged for foreign gold and 
silver coin, and for no other article. 

Art. II. — Wherever ships of the United States may be 
thrown or wrecked on our coasts our vessels will 
assist them and cany them to Nagasaki, and hand 
them over to their countrymen there ; whatever 
articles the shipwrecked men may have preserved shall 
likewise be restored. N'ote. — After the five years, 
when a new port is opened, that which has been 
saved shall be taken to the new port or to Nagasaki, 
as is most convenient. 

Art. III. — As it is not easy to ascertain certainly whether 
those who may be thrown upon our shores are good 
men or are pirates, they are not to be allowed to go 
walking about at those places as they please. 

Art. IV. — The Dutch aud Chinese who dwell at Nagasaki 
are under old regulations which cannot suddenly be 
altered ; therefore, all Americans resorting there cannot 
be permitted to go ashore as they please. 

Art. V. — After the other port is opened, if there be any 
other sort of articles wanted, or any business which 
requires to be arranged, there shall be careful deli- 
beration between the parties in order to settle them. 

Art. VI. — As Lewchew is a distant frontier dependency, 
the matter of opening a port there cannot at this time 
be caviled at by us. 

Art. VII. — As Matsmai is a distant border place likewise, 
and is ruled by its hereditary prince, the matter of 
making a port is also hard to cavil at this time. 
When the ships of the United States come to Nagasaki 
next spring, this point can be leisurely discussed and 
arranged. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION- TO JAPAN. 1 39 



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Thursday, MarcJi 161/1. — The intended meeting between 
the Commodore and the commissioners has been postponed till 
to-morrow on account of the storm ; it is a cheerless place on a 
-rainy day in that rude house. The condition of the common 
Japanese is not so comfortable as I had anticipated finding it, 
from what I had read. The villages I passed through exhibited 
evidences of poverty in every form ; the houses are slight, the 
utensils scattered around few and rude ; the domestic animals 
few, no hogs, cattle, ducks, geese, or sheep being seen, and only 
a few chickens, dogs, or cats ; the people dressed in cotton and 
in tattered raiment, though well fed and healthy looking. The 



140 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

houses are dark, when shut up, and this must prevent a good 
deal of in-door work in gloomy weather which our glazed 
apartments permit us to do. Temples are common, and gods 
of stone are numerous, some of them like the Briarean images 
of the Hindus, others as if only deified men, or deceased persons 
whose friends had put them up. The idols of the Buddhists 
were usually seen prominent in these collections, and Ometo Fuh 
was inscribed in many places. Tibetan letters were seen in two 
places, perhaps only the common inscription, om viani ptidvte 
0111, which becomes the more mystical the less is known of it. 

We entered a shop for a drink ; its contents were sandals, 
pattens, vessels containing fish, sauces, and other things, spirits, 
and an assortment of clothing, the whole not worth ten dollars. 
I gave a few cash to a girl who brought the water, but our 
official conductors made her give them back. The people were 
respectful to these officers, yet not cringing ; and probably this 
custom forms one of the strong bonds to keep the people in 
subj"ection. 

Friday, MarcJi i "jth. — The Commodore left the ship to-day 
at one o'clock, and was received on shore by the marines and 
an escort, with music, and met the four commissioners in the 
house. The conference was altogether about three hours and 
a half, and conducted very pleasantly by the Japanese. The 
refusal to go to Nagasaki at all was met by the proposal of 
another port, when Perry mentioned Uraga, and they Shimoda, 
pointing it out on the map. This place has a fine harbor, and 
the Commodore agreed to it provisionall)^ saying that he must 
first examine its location, and would send the " Vandalia " and 
" Southampton " down there immediately to inspect and survey 
it. It was surveyed in 1849 by H. B. M. Brig " Mariner," but no 
chart of it is in the squadron. Matsmai is to be consulted about, 
and an answer will be given at the next interview on Thursday, 
while they can say nothing regarding Lewchew ; this, therefore, 
seems to setde the question respecting the political independency 
of that island as of Yedo, whatever may be its relations with 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. I4I 

Satzuma. Sailors thrown ashore are not to be caged or con- 
fined, and to be restrained only after they are found guilty. 

Thus most of the objections made to their treaty are likely 
to be met in a friendly spirit, and I hope nothing will arise to 
mar the beginning of a new era for them. When we were 
talking respecting the visit of surveying ships to Shimoda, 
Kaheydye inquired if Mr. Bittenger was going, which rather 
amused us ; and then I asked him if he was afraid of him, and 
this set the commissioners laughing. He said he was not afraid 
of him, but he made a great muss. 

The oysters to-day were supplied abundantly, and if it had 
been a little warmer the visit would have been very agreeable. 
The telegraph wire is up a mile, the railroad will be ready for 
exhibition on Monday, and the various agricultural implements 
attract much notice. To-day, after Perry had left, a man of 
elegant manners and high rank (for everybody went down on 
their knees wherever he moved) landed and inspected every- 
thing with undisguised satisfaction. The commissioners came 
down from Kanagawa in a large barge, ornamented with banners 
and official umbrellas, and bearing the American flag on the 
side, a compliment I never heard of the Chinese doing. The 
boat was prettily painted and rather a gay thing. 

Saturday, March iSi/i. — I have spent the whole day on 
shore, taking a list of the agricultural implements, and assisting 
in exhibiting them to the people around us, many of whom 
appeared interested in their manipulations. The most of these 
machines are far too expensive and complicated, I fear, for the 
maj'oiity of the agriculturists and gardeners of Japan. The 
operations of the tillers of the soil here, as in China, are on too 
small a scale for them to afford the cost, and human labor for 
these same too abundant to need such implements ; and it will 
take much time to introduce them. The power of machinery, 
however, can find large fields for its exercise in these remote 
regions when once it is allowed full play. 

The day passed rather tediously, as I had not much to do» 



142 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

and the knowledge of the language is too limited yet to enable 
me to talk readily. I had a good opportunity to tell a con- 
siderable number of the spectators something about the resur- 
rection, a matter totally new to them, and which struck them as 
wanting much evidence to lead one to believe it. During a walk 
to the marine's grave we saw a few new things, among which 
the extensive use of charms at graves written in Tibetan and 
Chinese characters was one. None of our friends knew what 
the former meant. Many new guard houses have been placed 
in Yokohama since we came, some of which are filled with 
persons bearing the coat-of-arms of the prince of Sinano. 

Many of our visitors to-day are new, and I learn that 
several of those formerly here have been relieved by a second 
set, the others having gone to Uraga, among whom are Yezai- 
mon and Saboroske. 

Sunday, March igtk. — With the disregard of the Sabbath 
usual in this fleet, the " Southampton " was kept coaling during 
the night and most of the forenoon, in order to get her ready to 
leave for Shimoda with the " Vandalia." The " Supply " came up 
the bay this morning, disappointing more than she satisfied when 
her letter bag was distributed. Mr. Jones held service on board 
the flagship, Captain McCluney as before declining to attend. 
It is a matter of gratitude to hear of the welfare of dear friends, 
and get letters in Japan from Utica to December ist. Mr. 
Contee's letter describing the landing of last year has been the 
chief sport for the fleet since the " Supply " came in. 

Monday, March 20th. — Many changes in the officers of the 
squadron are ensuent on Dr. Gambrill's death and the return of 
the " Saratoga " with several invalids ; Dr. Wheelwright and Mid. 
Stockton leave this ship. The Japanese came aboard twice 
yesterday, Isaboro being now the chief spokesman in place of 
Yezaimon, and an inferior man in all respects. To-day I have 
been ashore all day and, as if I was known now, no Japanese 
interpreter came to the house the whole time. This practice, of 
course, is just what I want, troublesome as the impertinent and 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 43 

reiterated questioning sometimes becomes. There were very- 
few visitors to-day, but many questions when the railcar will be 
in readiness to move. Some new plants were collected in a 
short walk, and shells, but we are a month too early for botany. 

Tuesday, March 21 sf. — Dr. Morrow and I went off this 
morning on a search for an appropriate place to exhibit his 
hydrostatic ram, but after rambling two hours along the base of 
the hills back of the village, we returned unsuccessful. The 
officials who accompanied us were not much pleased with the 
tramp through tangled underbrush and boggy paths, for their 
straw sandals are ill fitted for getting over rough places. The 
season is not yet advanced enough to make these rambles pay 
in botanizing. The locomotive and tender were started on their 
circuit to-day, and went scudding round and round the circus 
like a Shetland pony, to the great pleasure of every spectator. 
The Japanese are, I think, more pleased with this thing than 
anything else we have given them. 

Wednesday, March 7.2nd. — Another unsuccessful search 
for a proper place to exhibit the hydrostatic ram ; but we came 
across some petrifactions in the rocks at the base of the cliff, and 
procured several specimens. TlTe rock was in situ one hundred 
and fifty feet above water mark, in a friable conglomerate, 
colored with iron. Some plants were dug up that promise 
something. Our companions to-day were not well disposed to 
an extension of the walk, but I managed to keep them in good 
humor, especially on the matter of procuring a couple of ducks 
we saw in a yard. 

A large party came to-day from Yedo and Kanagawa to 
see the locomotive and telegraph. We managed to communi- 
cate through Namura's aid by writing the sounds in Japanese 
and sending them literally. It satisfied them, however, and all 
appeared to understand the idea, though not the mode of its 
operation. This party of people were not a whit superior to 
any of the previous companies of visitors we have had, and I 
know not that they were of any higher rank. On reaching the 



144 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

ship in the evening, we found that it had been agreed on to send 
the revised articles of the Treaty on board to morrow, and 
deliver the return presents on Friday. 

Thursday, March 2yrd. — Hiraiyama Kenzhiro came off 
this morning with the following paper : — 

J=^i ^ ^y. j^ 35. |[^ 

S # « * ' ^ * K a ^ t ii « « 

tt q= ^ ffl ■ ^ W It & itn fg 7K « 

" Ships of your nation passing by, and being in want of pro- 
visions, fuel and water, are permitted to procure them at the 
port of Hakodade, which we desire may be regarded as con- 
sonant with the desire expressed in the letter received from you. 
But as it is a distant place, and time will be necessary to prepare 
and settle everything there, it is arranged that the /th month of 
our next year (Sept. 6th to Oct. 5th) be the date for opening 
the port. 

" Kayei, 7th year, 2nd month, 25th day (Mar. 23rd, 1854). 

" Hayashi, Dai-gaku no kami 
" Ido, Tsus-sima no kami 
" Izawa, Mimasaki no kami 
" Udono, Mimbu shiyoyu." 

This gives permission to our whalers to repair to the port of 
Hakodade near Matsmai for supplies, and the time appointed for 
opening it will probably be as soon as arrangements can be 
made. Whether it will prove a good place for furnishing these 
ships with supplies remains to be seen after a few experiments 
have been made. It is probably a small and unimportant place 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. I45 

now, and time will be required to attract traders and provision- 
ers there. 

Friday y MarcJi 24///. — The " Susquehanna " started for 
Hongkong early this morning, much to the regret of most of 
her officers, especially the captain, who are thus disappointed in 
seeing more of the country of which they will be expected to 
have learned almost everything ; and, what annoys them still 
more, they are unable to get any articles of rarity of Japanese 
manufacture, or see what is more to be seen of their customs. 
The Commodore reached the shore in his barge about noon, the 
four commissioners having been there some two hours before 
him. On reaching the hall, we found the return presents from 
their government spread out on the mats, lying in pretty pine 
trays, and making a pretty show in consequence, far more so 
than ours did, done us as the most of them were in brown paper 
and rough boxes. Some of the pieces of lacquered ware in 
raised gold figures were beautiful, and the silks were rather fine, 
especially the heavy crapes ; the patterns of these last were quite 
unlike anything now made elsewhere. The list will exhibit the 
variety.* 

ist. — From the Japanese government to U. S. A. 

I gold lacquered writing table, writing apparatus, 
paper box and bookcase, four pieces, i bronze cow- 
shaped censer, with a silver flower on top — i set plates 
or trays — i bouquet holder and stand — 2 braziers for 
charcoal — 10 ps. each, white and red pongee, and 5 
each, figured and dyed crape. 
2nd. — From Hayashi to U. S. A. government. 

I lacquered apparatus and paper-box — i box paper, 
of flowered paper, and 5 of stamped note paper — 4 
boxes assorted 100 kinds sea shells — i box holding a 
branch of coral and a silver feather — i lacquered 

* It is rather curious that the author makes no mention of the " four small 
dogs of a rare breed sent to the President as a part of the Emperor's gift," {^A^ar- 
rative, p. 369) which the Commodore tells us " always form part of a Japanese 
royal present." 



146 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

chowchow box — i box set of 3 goblets — 7 boxes 
cups, spoons and goblet cut from conch shells. 
3rd. — From Ido, prince of Tsus-sima. 

2 boxes 4 lacquered waiters — 20 paper umbrellas— 
30 coir brooms. 

4th. — From Izawa, prince of Mimasaki. 

I ps. each, red and white pongee, 1 3 dolls, box of 
woven bamboo articles, and 2 bamboo stands. 

5 th. — From Udono, member of Revenue Board. 

3 ps. striped crape, 20 porcelain cups, and 10 j'ars of 
soy. 

6th. — From Matsusaki. 

3 boxes porcelain cups, i box figured matting, and 35 

bdls. oak charcoal. 
7th. — From Abe, first Councillor. 

15 ps. striped figured pongee or taffeta. 
8th-i 2th.— From the other six councillors. 

10 ps. striped figured pongee from each councillor. 
1 3th. — From Emperor to Commodore Terry. 

1 lacquered writing apparatus and paper box, 3 ps. 
red and 2 ps. white pongee, 2 ps. flowered and 3 ps. 
figured dyed crape. 

14th. — From Commissioners to Captain Adams. 

3 ps. red pongee, 2 figured crape, and 24 lacquered 

cups and covers. 
15th. — From Commissioners to Perry,* Williams and 
Portman, each. 

2 ps. red pongee, 2 of dyed figured crape, and 10 sets 
cups and covers. 

1 6th. — From Commissioners to Draper, Danby, Gay, 
Williams| and Morrow. 
I ps. red dyed figured crape and lO lacquered cups 
and covers. 

* O. H. Perry, the Commodore's son and secretary. 
t J. P. Williams, telegrapher, the author's brother. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 4/ 

17th. — From Emperor to squadron. 

200 bundles of rice and 300 chickens. Each bundle 
contained five Chinese pecks or ^j-, tan. 

There are in all 132 ps. of silk. Everything was brought 
off, and, except the chickens, are all to be sent to Washington. 

After the exhibition of the presents, the commissioners 
invited Perry out in front, and soon ninety naked rikozhi, or 
athletae, paraded in front to show their brawn by carrying the 
bundles of rice in various ways ; some, two on their heads, 
others, one in their teeth, at the end of their arms, or on their 
backs. These fellows are trained to such feats and were all 
stout-limbed men ; the biggest stripped to let Perry punch him 
in his paunch. They were brought to this village from Yedo, 
and we regarded it as a good sign that the commissioners should 
take some pains to amuse us. From this spot the company 
repaired to the railroad, where the locomotive was soon ready 
to run its race around the ring, a spectacle which interested the 
natives greatly. On returning to the house, the; company was 
seated facing the inner yard, where the strongest of the athletae 
were brought forward to exhibit their prowess. First, the 
whole body of them stood in a circle and went through a sort 
of drill, or manual, slapping their breasts, rubbing their hands, 
arm-pits, and knees, with other motions, after which they 
marched off. A second company, dressed a little with long 
fancy aprons, then circled the ring, going through with similar 
motions. The match then began, two and two coming into the 
ring. First, squatting on their feet, opposite each other, the two 
began to rub themselves with dirt on the palms and arm pits, 
and then advanced to the centre in a steady step. Here, each 
stretched out one leg after the other, holding his knee with a 
close grip and planting his foot in the earth with a heavy groan, 
or grunt, several times, again rubbing his hands in the gravel 
like a bull pawing the earth. All this took up a minute or 
more, and then each, seizing the other's shoulders, endeavored 
to push his antagonist over ; one butted his head with all his 



148 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN, 

force against the other's breast, while that one only tried to 
throw him by turning his body, and generally succeeded in 
doing so, he coming to the ground with a thump that showed 
the force exerted. In only one case was there anything like 
wrestling. All the men were heav}^, and seemed strong too ; 
the biggest remained victor. Some of them rushed up scream- 
ing like mad, but these generally proved to be weaklings. It 
was a curious, barbaric spectacle, reminding one of the old 
gladiators. Indeed, there was a curious melange to-day here, a 
junction of the east and west, railroads and telegraph, boxers 
and educated athletae, epaulettes and uniforms, shaven pates and 
night-gowns, soldiers with muskets and drilling in close array, 
soldiers with petticoats, sandals, two swords, and all in disorder, 
like a crowd — all these things, and many other things, exhibit- 
ing the difference between our civilization and usages and those 
of this secluded, pagan people. : 

The interview lasted two or three hours ; at the close of it, 
Commissioner Lin gave Perry two swords, three matchlocks 
and two sets of coins. All the high officers seemed in good 
spirits, and everybody left for the ships much amused with the 
day's show. Oh ! how desirable that our opening intercourse 
may produce different results, calculated to elevate and purify 
the Japanese, so that they may learn the real source of our 
supeiiority in the momentous truths of the Bible. 

Saturday, March 2$th. — M. Yenoske, Isaboro, Kenzhiro 
and others came to see Perry to-day, while we were all hurried 
here and there to pack and mark the presents received yester- 
day. They wished him to defer his visit to Matsmai for one 
hundred days, but he refused to do so more than fifty ; they 
said interpreters must go there via Yedo, and the dialect differs 
so much there that I cannot understand them. The Japanese 
are unwilling to allow consuls, as they say the governor and 
interpreter can manage all things with the captain of the ship. 
The discussion respecting trade after the treaty, walking about, 
furnishing coal, and the immediate opening of Simoda, was on 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. I^Q 

the whole favorable. In the course of the interview, it came out 
that, owing- to Pellew's foray into Nagasaki harbor, and the 
suicides of the native officials, great fear was entertained of the 
designs and violence of the English. It was agreed to-day that 
a tariff of prices of merchandise, coal, provisions, and other 
things be made out, for the purpose of informing our people that 
ships may know what they are to pay and what they can get in 
Japan. 

Monday, Mat'ch 2'/th. — There was nothing done in the 
ships to-day but make preparation for the entertainment given 
here to Hayashi and his colleagues, with other officials ; the five 
former were provided for in the cabin, and about sixty came to 
the tables on deck. Good humor prevailed and the whole 
appeared to be gratified. The commissioners first went to the 
" Macedonian," where they saw an exhibition of the manner of 
training, loading and firing great guns, and all the other evolu- 
tions of a ship's company at general quarters. When this was 
over, they left that ship under a salute, and were received by 
Commodore Perry on the quarter-deck and conducted over the 
ship, including the engine, which was put in motion for their 
entertainment. It greatly surprised them, and apparently be- 
wildered some of them. Dinner was now ready, and above and 
below all prepared to taste the good things provided for them. 
Captains Abbot, Lee, Adams, and Walker assisted the Com- 
modore, and they furnished the Japanese with a sample of every- 
thing on the table, sipping wine, tasting meats, preserves, pastry 
and other rarities, until they were all very well satisfied. I 
managed to tell them the names of nearly or quite everything, 
which also seemed to increase the interest in the feast. But the 
appearance of four large cakes, each having a miniature flag 
with the coats-of arms of the four commissioners on it stuck in 
it, was the best hit ; they received the compliment as a well- 
timed one. 

About half-past five o'clock all went forward and listened 
to a performance of singing and dancing by the minstrels until it 



I50 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

was too late for them to stay longer ; this exhibition was a source 
of great merriment to them and every one present, for the acting 
was excellent. About two hundred Japanese altogether were 
on board, and the day passed off without accident, and to the 
gratification of everybody. 

Tuesday, March 2?>th. — At noon the Commodore met the 
Japanese commissioners on shore and discussed some of the 
points he had drawn up, including those which had been accept- 
ed. That for opening Simoda as soon as the Treaty was signed 
was objected to so strongly that a compromise was agreed upon, 
which amounted to deferring all trade there, except for this 
squadron, until the President had promulgated his orders and 
notices that the place was available. Another hesitancy was 
seen in the limits to which Americans might go from the ports, 
and it was at last limited to seven Japanese miles, and a man was 
to be back the same day. " Temporarily " was also inserted 
before the word " residing " in this article, as they did not see 
the use of putting residents on shore there. A good deal of 
discussion of a friendly [nature was carried on to-day upon 
several points of the Treaty, and all its points and articles were 
settled. How much has been gained over what I expected last 
spring when I was asked to come here ! How thankful ought 
we all to be that no collision has taken place ! 

Wednesday, March 2gth. — Doing up specimens of American 
coins, and preparing articles of the Treaty all the morning, 
which Yenoske cavilled at when he came in the afternoon, 
accepting some and altering or rejecting others. All the 
management of the Treaty seems to have been transferred to his 
hands by the commissioners, for Kenzhiro and others with him 
said ahnost nothing. In all these consultations Yenoske seems 
to possess decisive authority, and he is pretty well fitted for it. 
Objection was made to the distance allowed for rambles, and the 
point was conceded for Simoda, starting from a small island in 
the harbor, and for Hakodade, when the Commodore has been 
there. A curious objection was made to the ratification of the 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 15I 

Treaty, as the Emperor needed only to approve what his com- 
missioners had done, and then it would be evermore obeyed. 
This people seem to be bred into a full idea of the " right of 
kings divine, to do just as they have a mind," and to liberate 
them from such a thraldom can only be brought about by the 
Gospel. The discussion of one point and another, the appoint- 
ment of consuls, the opening of the port of Simoda, and the 
distance to which Americans may ramble there, prolonged the 
interview till dark. During the afternoon Kenzhiro wrote the 
following as either expressing his dislike or predilections : 

" In the vast expanse of the world's extent, are not all the 
tender children of the ^ ^, Heavenly Ruler ? Among them, 
courtesy, good faith, kindness and justice ought to rule as they 
do among own brothers ; but if, covetous of gain, things are 
carried to an extreme, all ought to be ashamed of it and not 
speak thereof ; yet to discourse of warlike affairs and the neces- 
sary modes of commotion, slaughter and battle is not unworthy 
of continual talk and research." If he alluded to the delibera- 
tions then going on it was a hint that we were rather quiddling. 

Thursday, JMarcJi '^oth. — The same party came early to- 
day and, after going over their Dutch version and making one 
from it and Mr. Portman's, all the articles, twelve in number, 
were agreed to, some other points being put into a supplemen- 
tary letter, one of which was that Simoda is not actually to be 
opened till next autumn ; and another respecting consuls. 
Yenoske, in return for all that Perry had given him, brought a 
box of sweetmeats ; and it was a pretty box indeed. In return 
he took away a box of Lowell cottons, and also the presents for 
Kahey5ye, and a promise of a brass howitzer for the two 
princes, Izawa and Ido, for which they had been asking again 
and again. It is not for want of cumshaws to the Japanese that 
we shall fail of making a treaty, especially drinkables of all sorts ; 
though I suppose this is the way to do such negotiations ih.t 
ivorld over. 

Friday y Mar cJi list. — Last evening Kenzhiro came about 



152 A JOURNAL OF THE PERKY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

eight o'clock with the Chinese version of the Treaty done from 
the Japanese, and, after some alterations and the correction of 
one important error respecting the distance allowed for rambling 
at Simoda, the whole was agreed upon. This morning a fair 
copy was made, and about a quarter of one o'clock the Com- 
modore left the ship. On meeting the Japanese commissioners, 
they exhibited three copies of the Japanese version and one each 
of the Dutch and Chinese, while we had three copies of the 
English and one each of the Dutch and Chinese. They first 
opened theirs at the seals to show the rubrics attached to the 
name of each commissioner, instead of a seal, and then the 
Commodore signed the three English copies in their presence. 
The two copies of the Dutch version were then compared and 
found to be the same, when they Vv^ere exchanged, one being 
signed by Yenoske, the other by Mr. Portman. After this, the 
Chinese copies were compared, and one character erased in one 
of them, but when I wished them to sign their copy and date it 
a difficulty arose, for they wished only to date it in Kayei's 
nam.e and year, while I required both theirs and ours, as in the 
Dutch. They declined to write the characters for " our Lord 
Jesus Christ," and the Commodore allowed the omission,* after 
which they dated it, and Matsusake Michitaro signed it with his 
rubric ; and I signed the other and gave it in exchange. Thus 
completed the negotiations and signing of the Treaty of Kana- 
gawa, the first one ever made by the Japanese. Long may they 
rejoice over the blessings it will bring them, and may the Dis- 
poser of nations and events make it the opening whereby his 
great Name m.ay be declared unto them. After so many years 
of seclusion, He has inclined them to listen to this application to 
loosen the strictness of their laws, and I sincerely hope they will 
never have occasion to repent of the privileges granted on this 
day. 



* No mention is made of this in the Narrative, where the phrase occurs in 
the English copy of the Treaty. The ninth article of this Treaty containing 
the " most favored nation " clause was suggested by Dr. Willianis. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 53 

The Treaty being signed, a dinner was brought us, though 
it hardly came up to our expectations. The first course was 
composed of tea, candy tied in knots and sponge cake. The 
second, of raw oysters, mushroom soup, boiled pear, eggs 
pressed together after boiling into cakes and then cut into strips, 
seaweed cooked with sugar, raw ginger, boiled walnuts, and 
mushrooms, hot and cold saki served as occasion required. 
The third, of boiled bream, large crawfish, shrimp, sliced fish, 
bean soup with greens, seaweed in fine threads, greens, boiled 
bamboo and onions, with the long; yam, a vegetable I never saw 
before. The fourth, of fish soup, taro, blancmange, with the 
word sJiaii, or longevity, on it in a cypher in red, boiled chest- 
nuts, and one or two other unknown matters. As a whole, it 
was not equal to the dinners given at Shui, and would doubtless 
have been better served at Yedo or even Kanagawa. 

Dinner being over, a long discussion ensued respecting the 
visit to Yedo, to which the Japanese made many objections, and 
requested the Commodore as a personal favor not to go up the 
bay ; but he told them it must be done, as the President had 
ordered it, even if they did not let him go ashore. It ended by 
the closing of further useless alternation of arguments, and each 
wishing the other good-bye. Commissioner Lin said that it was 
the firm determination of the Japanese never to open the port or 
Bay of Yedo to foreign ships. At leaving, Captain Adams 
handed over the list of the presents still on hand. 

Satm'day, April \st. — The list of agricultural instruments 
and seeds was given to the interpreters this morning, and a num- 
ber of carpenters were ready to begin to pack them up, as well 
as the telegraph and locomotive. This being done as far as we 
had anything to say. Dr. Morrow and I started off to collect 
plants, though the slight frost and cold weather lately had 
rather retarded than hastened their development. We went up 
the creek and crossed the bridge, where we saw a fellow throw- 
ing a net in which came up a fine surmullet, a silure, and a sort 
of perch, but we had no means of carrying them off. Proceed- 



154 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

ing northward across the valley, we reached the hill and went 
onward for about three miles, finding little to repay us, but much 
to see. At one farmhouse we procured a little cotton seed, 
while no one has seen the cotton growing hitherto. In the next 
valley we reached the highroad leading westward from Yedo, 
and came into the village of Hodangya stretching along both 
sides of it for a mile. The people were all abroad, and all 
pleased to see the foreigners as we were to see them. The 
shops were low buildings, with nearly the whole front open, 
displaying only the common necessaries of life. On one sign we 
noticed the name Vroum von Metter in Roman capitals, and on 
another the efficacy of a medicine introduced by the Dutch from 
abroad was extolled. A few two-storied houses, with the gable 
ends to the street, seemed to be the dwellings of the better sort; 
their window blinds were made of two-inch plank trebled ; some 
windows were grated. A covered way stretched along the 
whole street, but not so as to protect foot passengers from the 
rain ; it was merely a shelter for the individual householder. 
The road was nearly a macadamized one ; a few packhorses 
were seen, but no vehicles, and almost no animals. The crowd 
gave way as we went on, everyone preserving the utmost order ; 
among them the women, wdth their black teeth, looked the more 
repulsive the more they laughed, and three or four naked 
fellows who had run out from their work looked odd amid the 
dressed crowd. As a whole, the line of shops and houses did 
not equal a similar row in China, and the people were not, I 
thought, as large on the average. Dr. Morrow and I were 
almost a head above them. 

A Copy of the Treaty of Kanagavva. 

The United States of America and the Empire of Japan, 
desiring to establish firm, lasting, and sincere friendship between 
the two nations, liave resolved to fix in a manner clear and 
positive, by means of a Treaty or General Convention of Peace 
and Amity, the rules which shall in future be mutually observed 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. I $5 

in the intercourse of their respective countries ; for which most 
desirable object, the President of the United States has conferred 
full powers on his commissioner, Matthew Calbraith Perry, 
Special Ambassador of the United States to Japan; and the 
August Sovereign of Japan has given similar powers to his 
commissioners, Hayashi, Dai-gaku no kami, Ido, prince of 
Tsus-sima, Izawa, prince of Mimasaki, and Udono, member of 
the Board of Revenue. And the said commissioners, after 
having exchanged their said full powers and duly considered 
the premises, have agreed to the following articles : — 

I. — There shall be a perfect, permanent and universal peace, 
and a sincere and cordial amity between the United 
States of America on the one part, and the Empire of 
Japan on the other part, and between their people 
respectively, without exception of persons or places. 
II. — The port of Simoda in the principality of Idzu, and 
the port of Hakodade in the principality of Matsmai, 
are granted by the Japanese as ports for the reception 
of American ships, where they can be supplied with 
wood, water, provisions and coal, and other articles 
their necessities may require, as far as the Japanese 
have them. The time for opening the first named 
port is immediately on signing this Treaty ; the last 
named port is to be opened immediately after the same 
day in the ensuing Japanese year. Note. — A tariff of 
prices shall be given by the Japanese officers of the 
things which they can furnish, payment for which shall 
be made in gold and silver coin. 
III. — Whenever ships of the United States are thrown or 
wrecked on the coasts of Japan, the Japanese vessels 
will assist them and carry their crews to Simoda or 
Hakodade, and hand them over to their countrymen 
appointed to receive them ; whatever articles the ship- 
wrecked men may have preserved shall likewise be 
restored, and the expences incurred in the rescue and 



156 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

support of Americans and Japanese who may thus be 
thrown upon the shores of either nation are not to be 
refunded. 

IV. — Those shipwrecked persons and other citizens of the 
United States shall be free as in other countries, and 
not subjected to confinement, but shall be amenable to 
j'ust laws. 

V. — .Shipwrecked men, and other citizens of the United 
States, temporarily living at Simoda and Hakodade 
shall not be subj'ect to such restrictions and confine- 
ment as the Dutch and Chinese are at Nagasaki ; but 
shall be free at Simoda to go where they please within 
the limits of seven Japanese ri or miles from a small 
island in the harbor of Simoda, marked in the accom- 
panying chart hereto appended ; and shall be free in 
like manner to go where they please at Hakodade, 
within limits to be defined after the visit of the United 
States squadron to that place. 

VI. — If there be any other sort of goods wanted, or any 
business which shall require to be arranged, there 
shall be careful deliberation between the parties in 
order to settle such matters. 

VII. — It is agreed that ships of the United States resorting 
to the ports open to them shall be permitted to ex- 
change gold and silver coin and articles of goods for 
other articles of goods, under such regulations as shall 
be temporarily established by the Japanese government 
for that purpose. It is stipulated , however, that the ships 
of the United States shall be permitted to carry away 
whatever articles they may be* unwilling to exchange. 

VIII. — Wood, water, provisions, coal, and goods required 
shall only be procured through the agency of Japanese 
ofificers appointed for that purpose, and in no other 
manner, 

* Are in the published text of the Treaty. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 57 

IX. — It is agreed that if at any future day the government 
of Japan shall grant to any other nation, or nations, 
privileges and advantages which are not herein granted 
to the United States and the citizens thereof, that these 
same privileges and advantages shall be granted like- 
wise to the United States and to the citizens thereof 
without any consultation or delay. 
X. — Ships of the United States shall be permitted to resort 
to no other ports in Japan but Simoda and Hakodade, 
unless in distress, or forced by stress of weather. 
XI. — There shall be appointed by the government of the 
United States consuls or agents to reside in Simoda 
at any time after the expiration of eighteen months 
from the date of the signing of this Treaty, provided 
that either of the two governments deem such arrange- 
ment necessary. 
XII. — The present convention, having been concluded and 
duly signed, shall be obligatory and faithfully observed 
by the United States of America and Japan, and by 
the citizens and subj'ects of each respective power ; 
and it is to be ratified and approved by the President 
of the United States, by and with the advice and 
consent of the Senate thereof, and by the august 
Sovereign of Japan, and the ratification shall be 
exchanged within eighteen months from the date of 
the signature thereof, or sooner if possible. 
In faith whereof, we, the respective plenipotentiaries of the 
United States of America and the Empire of Japan, aforesaid, 
have signed and sealed these presents. 

Done at Kanagawa, March 31st, 1854, and Kayei, 7th 
year, 3rd month, and 3rd day. 

Sunday, April 2nd. — Mr. Jones did not come aboard the 
" Powhatan " to-day, but I had opportunity to go to the " Missis- 
sippi." Notwithstanding our repeated requests, a party of 
Japanese came aboard to-day and remained drinking and talking 



158 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN, 

most of the afternoon. The interpreters have doubtless learned 
at Nagasaki that the Sabbath is only a longer holiday and 
nothing of a holy day ; and doubt not they will find it so here 
too. They brought Perry five pieces of crape to-day in return 
for the pistols, cloth and wine he has given them. 

Tuesday, April ^fh. — The " Saratoga " left this morning, 
carrying some invalids and Captain Adams with his Treaty. I 
have hardly ever been so affected by any music as I was to-day 
by the " Mississippi's " band playing Home, Sweet Home, as 
the " Saratoga '' passed her ; it brought tears to some eyes. 

Thursday, April 6th. — Commodore Perry and a party 
landed to-day for a walk. The howitzer and its two carriages, 
and ten boxes of tea were taken ashore as the last presents to be 
made to the officers here. The gun will doubtless be regarded 
as a great prize ; the first question was, " Where is the powder 
and shot ? " and " Let us see you fire it off." I suppose the 
Japanese will soon begin to cast others like it, and think them- 
selves able to resist foreign aggression as soon as they have 
made guns. After a few cups of tea had been served, the party 
started, going towards the old telegraph house, and then into a 
small mia, or Buddhist temple, having three images and some 
tablets. The chief image seemed to be cut out of the root of a 
tree. The inscriptions were all in Chinese, but there was no 
time to get their explanation. 

From this we struck across the rice fields along the dyke, 
and ascended the hills west of Yokohama and down into a 
pretty dell, where ^^'e rested in a small temple for some time. 
It was a charming spot, and the camellias, peaches and plums, 
all in full flower, gave it a gay appearance, while, the delightful 
temperature made everybody feel happy. The people living 
here came out to see the foreigners, but our official escort 
repelled them to a distance. We saw the tea plant growing in 
this nook, the first row of it I have noticed. 

From this the Commodore returned to the village and paid 
the headman a visit, as I had suggested to him, to conduct us 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 59 

round that way. In his yard was a curious pine tree, the trunk 
of which was about four feet high, and the top spread out hke 
an umbrella twenty feet or more in diameter ; it was the result 
of thirty years' labor and culture, and was in a healthy state, 
full of flowers. It was not so large as one we saw last Saturday 
near a village up the valley, that being on the loamy bank of a 
stream. Besides this, our host had a fir tree bearing several 
branches of pine grafted in, which he evidently took some pride 
in. During the visit his wife and daughter came out, one 
bringing his grandson, and making themselves part of the party. 
It was instructive to. see how utterly regardless of the man and 
his family Yenoske and his fellows all acted, sitting on the mats 
smoking and laughing among themselves. I suspect the lower 
ranks of life in Japan are kept from rising by an iron hand ; and 
yet how totally unprepared they are for asserting their rights is 
too plain to everyone. This man has been obliged, probably, 
to accommodate several officers since we came, and perhaps 
much of the cost of entertaining us and them has fallen on the 
village. We left and returned on board altogether, leaving 
nothing behind at the house. 

To our surprise our host of this morning came aboard the 
" Powhatan " about half past eight o'clock, bringing with him a 
fan and a dozen sheets of paper to get my teacher to write him 
some autographs. He had heard that we were soon to leave, 
and this was his only way to see the ship. We gave him a few 
presents, and he departed mightily pleased with his reception ; 
he is a general favorite, especially with Dr. Morrow and me, 
whom he has accompanied most cheerfully in many a long- 
ramble. I hope he may be able to keep what he took with 
him, for he told me that he had been forced to give up some of 
the seed formerly given him. 

Saturday, April Zth. — Yesterday was a rainy, cold day, 
and the quiet of the ships in the blasts which now and then 
swept by us showed the excellence of the anchorage and the 
security ships can expect in this place. A heavy storm doubt- 



l6o A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

less was felt on the coasts, but this morning opened clear and 
invigorating, refreshing everybody by the bright sunshine. Mt. 
Fusi and all the high land at its base was covered with snow, 
showing the little advance yet made in the coming on of spring 
compared with what might be inferred from the vegetation 
along shore. Some of the snow had disappeared before night. 
The water has been all delivered now to the ships, for which the 
Japanese will take no pay. No provisions have been brought 
us for many days, and many a chicken and duck came to an 
untimely end by the cold last night, so that it is about time to 
be moving. In fact, our official purveyors have given us very 
few eatables, and not exerted themselves to supply us with what 
could be obtained ; at least, this is a reasonable conclusion from 
their conduct. Perhaps live stock cannot be easily obtained 
hereabouts, but fish, vegetables and shell-fish can ; and these are 
not brought off any more than the others. In the Japanese is 
to be seen the same curious mixture of politeness and unmeaning 
assent, half-promise and non-performance, that is exhibited by 
the Chinese, and I think by all heathen people advanced to any 
degree of artificial society. The promise to perform and the 
excuse for not performing are alike heartless, and can only be 
removed, I think, by a sense of fear. Probably it is indisposi- 
tion to exert themselves which prompts this conduct, though, too, 
they may not be willing to tell us all the reasons and circum- 
stances of the case. 

Sunday, April gth. — The mJsty drizzle of the forenoon 
quite prevented all services on deck, but there was no work 
going on to speak of. The Commodore was' taken up by a 
long discussion with Yenoske and Kenzhiro about going up the 
bay. He says the President ordered him to go to Yedo, and 
he told the commissioners a month ago that he was going, and 
they made no objection ; other oft-repeated arguments were 
brought up, but no consent could be got out of them. They 
said Japanese laws were very strict, that great commotion would 
ensue, that the bay was shallow, that the Treaty was signed, 



A JOURNAL OF THE lERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. l6l 

that the Emperor would be irritated, that, as we had professed 
friendly feelings for them, they wished us as friends not to go, 
and would regard it as a personal favor, and, lastly, thai very 
serious personal consequences might result, intimating almost 
j'eopardy of honor and life, if we thus implicated them. It was 
agreed that the ships would not anchor unless they grounded, 
and then the whole party, as if willing to draw good from an 
evil, asked permission to go up in the steamers with the Com- 
modore that they might sec the working of their machinery ! 

The fact is, the presence of such an armament, in the view 
of the officials, involves the intention and will to use it ; for this 
they would do. Consequently, mere curiosity to see Yedo 
cannot be motive enough in us to go, because it would not 
with them. The cxposedness of their capital has startled them, 
and every subterfuge must be practiced to keep us from seeing 
more than the surveying boats saw, for what motive can we 
have in such a nearer view than ultimate conquest or pillage 
or ransom ? Judging us by themselves, our former forbear- 
ance, while possessed of so much power, can now be explained 
as having been exercised until the Treaty was signed ; now we 
wish to learn modes of approach for future use, if we do not at 
present contemplate violence. Conscious weakness induces 
many a cunning fetch which can only be explained by trying to 
place ourselves in the position of the weaker party ; and the fear 
of ultimate designs is, I think, the leading' motive of their strong 
objection to our moving up. Yet after every dissuasive had 
been exhausted, it was not the less characteristic of them to 
ask a passage, not only to excuse themselves by the plea. that 
they had done all they could to detain us, but to see what they 
had long desired to see in the working of the machinery. 

Monday, April loth. — By eight o'clock this morning the 
whole squadron were on the start, and bound for Yedo. The 
day was tolerably clear, and, our Japanese visitors seemed to 
have little fear to any dreadful result of the day's excursion. By 
noon we had gone about ten miles from Yokohama and seen the 



1 62 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

suburb of Shinagawa pretty distinctly, and its numerous rows 
or detachments of boats, not so many by far as I expected. 
The beacon we had so long had in view proved to be a tower 
of a temple inland and near Kawasaki, called Kawasaki Daishi- 
gawara, a place of resort and note. We went within about 
eight miles of a long row of stakes stretching along in front of 
Yedo, but not so near as to prevent large junks lying inside of 
it, and turned about in one hundred feet of water ! If a man is 
a Commodore I suppose he can do as nobody else would, in 
order to show that he can do as he likes ; and after all that had 
been said about going to Yedo, to say that we had left off four 
miles short of the surveying boats, and fully eight of the city, 
was rather an imputation on common sense on our part. I was 
much disappointed ; for, except a line of stakes and a long row 
of trees above Shinagawa and a smoky cloud above, with plenty 
of junks and boats below to indicate the probable position of the 
city, I saw nothing satisfactory. As one of the officers said, it 
should have been on the First of April instead of the Tenth, to 
make such a humbug appropriate. I have upheld and approved 
the Commodore's acts in most cases, where others have sharply 
ridiculed them, but this day's work was small enough. I have 
now been three times bound for Yedo, approaching nearer each 
time, and perhaps the fourth trial will land me there, or at least 
near enough to see it. 

The " Lexington " drifted on shore when getting under way 
this morning, and the " Mississippi " returned to tow her off and 
bring her down to join the squadron. The scenes on board 
are said to have much amused the crew.', 

Friday, April \A,tJi. — American Anchorage. 

No intercourse allowed with the shore here, and no visitors 
allowed to come near us, every native boat being kept away 
from the ships by a^ guard-boat, armed with authority to main- 
tain non-intercourse. The " Macedonian " went to sea on the 
nth early in the day, supposed to be bound for the Bonin 
Islands, as she took some agricultural implements. The " Sup- 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 63 

ply " and " Southampton " went down the bay this morning, 
perhaps to Simoda. Surveying the anchorage goes on slowly 
by reason of the rough sea, and we are likely to be quarantined 
here a few days longer. It is rather wearisome to be in sight of 
fields and headlands so long as we have been, and be debarred 
from seeing and rambling over them. 

Went aboard of a junk lying off, stationed to guard us, in 
order to deliver a letter for Yenoske, informing him of the sail- 
ing of the two ships. We were kindly received and shown 
whatever there was worth looking at, which was little enough. 
Nothing to eat, nowhere to sleep, and nothing to do, was about 
the whole of the matter for these sailors. They asked us when 
we were to leave, to which we replied they need not tarry any 
longer on our account. The main room had a thick deck and 
a tent-shaped roof; a dull fire was burning in a brazier or hearth 
in the middle of the deck, in a depression made for it, over 
which we found five or six of the crew crouching and smoking. 
The lockers, beams and furniture of the cabin were all lac- 
quered, and kept pretty clean too ; but some of the lockers they 
opened for us were dirty. The capstan to hoist the big rudder 
was unshipped ; it worked in two holes in beams, and was 
shaped like an oblong nine-pin. Six four-pronged grappling 
irons formed the ground tackle, and two well made coir haw- 
sers ; the tassel which hangs from the prow was made of hair- 
cloth rolled around a mat. The tiller was larger in proportion 
even than the Chinese, and similarly hung ; there were more 
points of resemblance to Chinese junks than I had supposed, and 
not a bit more of comfort. 

JMonday, Apiil \']l]i. — Spent the forenoon in rambling over 
Natsu-sima, or Webster Island, as we have named it. The 
position of this islet off Kanazawa facilitates its cultivation, and 
the moist part of its surface is covered with thatching grass, but 
whether this useful Arundo grows from wild stock or is culti- 
vated here; could not be determined. Two fields of barley in 
ear and a patch of vegetables are all the tilled spots. On the 



164 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

northwest corner is a shrine and a grave, both of them having 
rude statues, the latter covered by a shed and having a bell 
hung near. They were both places of worship, and we met a 
fisherman and his family ascending the hill to offer their orisons. 
Some cash and bits of rags were laid near each of them, but no 
other offerings, nor any places of ashes, as in China, from which 
I infer that incense sticks and paper are not as commonly 
burned. The suspension of rags around graves reminds one of 
the custom among Moslems, but no one which I have seen has 
tlie great number seen in the Mohammedan ivelys. 

We collected Crustacea, fish, shells, insects, plants, every- 
thing which was worth carrying away, but the beautiful actinia 
were in too deep water to be easily procured ; they looked very 
pretty, spreading their arms in every direction to collect their 
prey, and were so numerous as to give a gay appearance to the 
bottom. The low tide brought some dozen or two people to 
dig for clams, and the unblushing effrontery of these fishermen, 
as indeed of most whom we have seen, shows how much Japan 
needs the gospel of purity and love. 

Tuesday, April iZth. — Simoda Bay. 

The anchors were at the cat-heads before sunrise this 
morning, and the two steamers under weigh, coursing down this 
Bay of Yedo, probably for their last time. The day was smoky, 
so that we saw but comparatively little of the coasts, and were 
quite unable to discern any smoke from the summit of Oo-sima, 
which was wholly free from snov/, and looked much less beauti- 
ful than when we passed it in February. A visit to this volcano 
would well repay the trouble. Approaching the eastern shores 
of the peninsula of Idzu, we sailed near enough to discern the 
village along the sterile beach, but the background exhibited 
the industry bestowed upon it in the vast extent of terracing, 
which here far exceeded what we had hitherto seen. In one 
place, fifty steps of fields were counted, all covered with wheat. 
In the intervals, doubtless a large population is found to furnish 
hands to accomplish all this A\'ork. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 65 

About three o'clock we came into the harbor of Simoda, 
and all were surprised at the v^ariety of scenery and picturesque 
character of the shores. The hills rise to a height of a thousand 
or fifteen hundred feet, many lower ones covered with trees, 
lining the beach and adding a pleasing foreground in contrast 
with the barren and loftier mountains behind. The village of 
Simoda lies on the southwestern shores, and that of Kakisaki, 
or Persimmon Point, on the northern end of the harbor, both of 
them small towns compared with what we had been led to 
expect. 

Wednesday, April iQih. — The interpreter, Tatsunoske, 
came again this morning, but produced none of the things he 
promised yesterday ; in reality he is one of the most shiftless 
fellows we have to do with, and takes no trouble at all to get 
anything \\e ask for. In company with him came the prefect 
Kahey5ye and another officer named Nakadai Nobutaro, pro- 
bably his spy. There were in all a dozen officials all of whom 
as usual were glad to get a smack of toddy, wine and cake in 
the cabin where they lingered a good while, talking and excusing 
themselves from doing or promising anything. The trip to 06- 
sima was spoken of, but they had no instructions respecting it 
and could say nothing ; the way is to go first and talk about the 
arrangements afterwards, so far as asking permission goes. In 
the afternoon Mr. Portman and I went ashore to carry a list of 
provisions to be obtained, most of which Tatsunoske said could 
not be got, and a walk through the town confirmed his denial, 
so far as such a glance could prove anything. The town lies at 
the opening of two valle}^s, down one of which a small creek 
makes its way through the town, and forms by its mouth facili- 
ties for landing. At the landing place is a small shrine under a 
large pine, and near it a hillside covered with trees invites one to 
explore its grassy slopes. The town is regularly laid out at 
right angles, each street having a gate at each end, much more 
slightly made than in China but guarded with more care. The 
streets are wider than in Chinese towns, which makes the 



l66 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

houses appear lower. The most of the shops and dwellings 
were of plaster, the roofs of tiling, and the fronts worked in 
raised white checker work on a blue ground. The tiling is 
made of blue-black thick tiles which lap over each other on the 
side, one edge being made doubly thick and umbo-shaped, so 
as to catch the thin edge of the next row ; the ridges are there- 
fore much smaller than in China, but more likely to leak, as the 
overlapping cannot be so well secured. A few houses were 
two-storied, but none presented indications of wealth, nor was 
there any place which seemed to be a market. The shops, so 
far as we could see, furnished a beggarly catalogue of sandals, 
groceries and such stuff, and a total absence of the bustle of 
Hodangya proved the poverty of the port. The cancer of the 
social system was seen in the contempt shown to the women, 
but the power of the government was exhibited, too, in the sway 
exercised upon the crowds which thronged us. We went to 
the Riozhen-zhe, T jfil ■^' ^ temple of the Buddhists of con- 
siderable extent, having five priests in it and many ancestral 
tablets ; on these last are many names written, and most of them 
were varnished or gilded. Perhaps they are orbate tablets. 
There was a graveyard near this establishment, and a small 
attempt at a garden with a pond spanned by its tiny bridge 
leading to the top of a huge boulder. The grounds and house 
were scrupulously clean, and the priest, named Nichizhio, ;^, 
or Clean as the Sun, received us courteously. From this vve 
went to four other tera or Buddhistic temples, and one where a 
deified hero, called Gom.an-taro, of Yoritomo's time is worship- 
ped. Votive offerings were hung around, and in a sort of 
porch were many pictures of shipwrecks, persons struggling 
with the waves, or just clambering ashore, and under them 
dozens of pigtails strung along a board, the sacrifice of these 
rescued sailors which they had cut from their heads to evince 
their gratitude. It recalled to mind the offering of Berenice 
when Ptolemy was saved from shipwreck. Besides these, we 
saw a sword, a bow of large size, tablets and pictures, all given 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 6/ 

in as votive offerings, rendering the whole an interesting spot. 
The idols of the Japanese show more study and just idea of 
sculpture than the Chinese, so far as my observation goes, 
though neither are founded onj'ust principles. 

All the temples were situated back of the village, alongside 
of each other, approached by paved walks mostly lined with 
large trees. A row of magnificent mowtans proved that it was 
at home in Simoda ; one flower was ten inches across. A tree 
like a maple in its leaf, a purple magnolia, a spirea, a plum, 
red and white azalia, and a tree like the funeral cypress, 
were the principal plants observed. All these establishments 
looked rather effete, as if they had once seen better days ; and 
perhaps they were built when Simoda was the port of Yedo, 
instead of Uiaga, and maintained a large train of customs 
officials. 

Thursday, April 20th. — The storm has entirely prevented 
all visits nor have any Japanese come near us, but the security 
of the harbor has been well proven, at least for all north winds. 
The people of Simoda do not go out fishing much, and its ship- 
ping interests are plainly at a low figure. 

In our walk yesterday we were followed by most of the 
population, and all seemed healthy and well-fed. Ophthalmic 
complaints are prevalent, and small-pox has made its mark ; the 
children are seldom pretty and, of the two sexes, the boys are 
the most inviting ; a fev/ goodlooking girls hardly made amends 
for the scores of ugly or plain females — but a Houri or Hebe 
would never be able to stand roll-call after blackening her teeth 
and shaving her eyebrows. The women kept in the back of the 
crowd, as much from necessity as choice, I thought. 

In one of the temples we saw six horses that were haltered 
by a nose curb tied to each side of the stall ; it held them 
securely, as was proved by their restive struggles at seeing us. 
Two gun carriages were also noticed :here, apparently old and 
well taken care of. The insides of all these temples were 
varnished, nor have I yet seen a painted board or utensil in 



l68 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

Japan. The priests we saw were cleanly dressed, too, and one 
took pains to show us all over his domicile. Many prayer-books 
were observed in one of them, and their general furniture mostly 
resembled Buddhist establishments in Canton. 

Friday, April 21st. — The Commodore went ashore to-day 
with a small party to return the visit of the prefect, and was 
conducted to the ||{^ f^ •=^, Law-loving Monastery, until he 
could be informed of our arrival. The Japanese officials said we 
had come off earlier than had been mentioned, though they 
themselves had reached the ^' Powhatan " some time before we left 
it, bringing a lot of provisions for us. At the temple we were 
received as civilly as the place afforded means, and when Ka- 
heyoye appeared he did all he could to entertain us, among 
other things sending out to let the people come into the precincts. 
About five hundred or more persons came crowding around, 
fully one half of whom were women and girls, a few of whom 
were good looking. I do not think that Japanese features are 
as agreeable, when one sees hundreds of faces thus spread out 
before the gaze, as Chinese^ the women's dress is not more 
graceful than the Chinese, and exposes the bosom more when 
the uncouth great girdle is loose and the dress has been dis- 
ordered. How many of these females were proper ones could 
not be knovv^n, but I rather thinl: curiosity had drawn everybody 
out of doors to see us, and no restraint is put on their going out 
and in. Three or four of the better dressed, with their full pro- 
portion of girdle, more than a foot wide, and a knot behind that 
looked like a knapsack, and the hair done up neatly with a bow 
knot flat on the top of the head, were brought into the room, 
and they poured out a cup of saki for each. The discolored 
teeth of the oldest became more repulsive the nearer one could 
see them. 

On leaving this place, we visited some other temples and 
walked around through several streets back to the boats, a large 
crowd of quiet spectators everywhere attending us with the 
utmost order. One or two of the women most noticed at the 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 69 

temple contrived to put themselves at several corners on our 
way in order to attract more attention. 

Saturday, April 22nd. — General permission was given this 
morning to the officers of the squadron to go ashore, two and 
one-third months since arriving in these waters. A large 
number went ashore during the day, some of them taking long 
stretches and arduous ascents, which tired out the officials who 
were uselessly appointed to accompany us. The design of the 
Japanese authorities seems to be to watch us so carefully that 
no native shall supply us unauthorizedly with the least article 
until the punishment of a few offenders shall deter all from 
violations of these restrictive prohibitions. 

Dr. Morrow and I started for flowers and whatever else 
we could collect, taking the northerly valley from the town, 
and attended by four or five satellites, the chief one a well 
behaved man from Uraga, who had been at Yokohama, called 
Nakada Kadaiyu. The people thronged the streets as they did 
yesterday, but did not follow us. In one shop we induced a 
woman to resume her weaving. She sat on a stool and, tying 
the woven end of the web around her body by means of a 
string passing from the end of the beam, she fastened one treadle 
to her foot, the other being secured to the floor ; the loom was 
also made tight to the ceiling or the wall (I forget which) so 
that she should not pull it over. The shuttle was about fifteen 
inches long, sharp on one edge, and was used for both shuttle 
to deliver the thread through and a sley to set it home, the thin 
edge being forced down upon the thread. The foot was drawn 
up under the other leg to alternate the threads and make the 
web, which was of blue cotton fifteen inches wide. The rude- 
ness of this loom was doubtless owing to the poverty of the 
weaver, for better ones would be required to make the silks we 
have seen worn by officers. 

A little further on, a blacksmith's shop presented a similar 
rude assortment of machinery ; the anvil, forge, bellows and 
other things were so much like the Chinese as to excite surprise, 



170 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

for I should have thought some improvement would have been 
made. The men willingly showed us as much as we wished to 
see, and handled their tools like workmen. 

Going out from the town, we reached rice fields, now 
beginning to be turned over by the hoe, and took the chief road 
leading to the end of the valley. The waysides were covered 
with a carpet of little flowering plants, exhibiting a most beauti- 
ful variety of colors, and so abundant as to change the dun 
color of the ground as the eye glanced over it. A high stone 
gate-way on the top of a stone-walled plinth formed the entrance 
to a temple on the top of the adj'acent hill, nearly half a mile off, 
and concealed in the woods ; the hill was fancied to resemble 
Fusi, and the god was named Fusi Shengen Daibosats. If 
adoration paid at this gateway served the same as going to the 
top of the hill, the contrivance was a good one, however much 
against our notions of architectural unity. The village of 
Hongoii, of a hundred houses, was beyond this gateway, where 
the headman came out to meet us and showed us his house, 
well built and having stone basement walls. Here wayside idols 
and pillars with Nammo Amida Bosats carved on them showed, 
as they had everywhere else, the prevalence of idolatry. A 
bowl containing young ferns in soak, called zuarabi, for food 
stood near by the pillar. The pretty stream of Inedza-gawa 
ran through the village, the banks lined with shrubbery and 
showing many marks of freshets here and there. 

The walk was very pleasant, and we rapidly filled our 
book. The officer in attendance was sociable, and the people 
were not driven off; but to see one's fellowmen ordered about 
like dogs, their curiosity thwarted and convenience disregarded 
as if no more consequence than a spaniel's, humbles the race in 
one's own eyes, and imparts a feeling of reproach as belonging 
to the same race, from merely beholding this outrage on the 
dignity of man. A people that will tamely submit to it must 
have been schooled a long time by their rulers and given up at 
last in despair. 



A JOURNAL OF THE FERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. I/I 

Monday, April i^th. — Mr. Bent went ashore betimes this 
morning to see the prefect. One of the objects of the visit was 
to advise him to issue orders that the officers of the squadron be 
not followed by Japanese officials in their rambles through the 
country, nor have the people shut their houses up and run when 
foreigners came in sight. The prefect replied that he had left 
Yokohama so long before the Treaty was signed as to be 
unaware of the views of the commissioners respecting the 
attendance of officials when the Americans went into the villages, 
and he must report for instructions ; at Yokohama it had been 
done, but he, himself, having much confidence in us, was in- 
clined to try how it would work, for it was a serious burden on 
the officials under him to accompany us here and there. As to 
people running or staying when they saw us, it was a matter he 
could not control altogether, but he would issue commands to 
let them know they had nothing to fear from the foreigners, but 
were to report any misdemeanors. Another point was to 
procure a junk for the accommodation of a party to visit Oho- 
sima and examine the volcano ; and also to get three or four 
rooms in town for the convenience of the officers. The rooms 
in the temple of ||K \^ ^Ij at the back' of the town were visited 
after the interview was over, and made an offer of by the priests, 
somewhat to their inconvenience, I guess, judging by their 
looks. The disposition to accede to our requests on the part of 
these officers augurs well to pleasant intercourse. They seem 
to be more particular respecting trade than anything else. 

After this, a party of us started to follow up the valley 
south of the town, and took a course along the beach for a 
while, and then struck across the hills till we reached a place 
called Nabeta in a secluded dell, where not much of this world's 
riches or ambition have yet come, and the inmates of its seven 
houses proved that no great amount of its cotton fabrics had 
reached them. The valley was soon to be turned into a huge 
rice field, and one man was plougliing with a siinple plougli 
made of a beam with a crooked handle to sustain and guide a 



172 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

share shaped hke a big spoon, which turned over the earth five 
inches with much effect. It was not so effective, however, as 
the deep hoeing of two or three lads with the ploughman, whose 
three-pronged dung-rakes turned over the wet land very easily. 

A short walk carried us to Okagata, a hamlet of about 
sixty houses, beyond which was a large temple inclosed in 
almost a complete solitude, where contemplative Buddhists 
might drone away their lives in total listlessness. It was called 
Shio-riu zan /)> ;^ jll , the temple Sooto yin. Buddhism must 
have a deep hold upon the minds of the Japanese to induce them 
to erect such structures in wilds like this, so far from the abodes 
of men. The five priests living here keep the houses and 
grounds in clean condition ; one of their acolytes was only four 
or five years old. Near the place, as we left it, a wayside god, 
called Dooso-jin, attracted our notice from his holding a sceptre 
in his crossed hand, and his head being covered v;ith a sort of 
crown, from which a broad cape descended to cover his back 
and shoulders. Many of these terminalia ofier curious subj'ects 
of speculation. 

From this, a rugged mountain' path led us over to the 
valley north of Simoda to the village of Hongo, where we met 
many officers walking, and joined them. This valley is incon- 
testably the most beautiful in this vicinity. 

Tuesday, April 2^ih. — Two Japanese came aboard last 
night to get a passage to the United States in our ships, but the 
Commodore declined to receive them, unless they had previous 
permission from their own rulers to do so. They had pre- 
viously sent a well written letter intimating their desire to go and 
willingness to do an}'thing on board. This letter was to the 
following purport : " Two scholars of Yedo in Japan, named 
Isagi Kooda, "ffi tK 5V >[c » ^"<"J Kwanouchi Manji, /K. »f» H H ,* 

* The assumed name of Yoshida Torajiro (or Shoin), the hero of Robert 
Louis Stevenson's paper under that name in his "Familiar Studies of Men and 
Books." The incident is narrated in the Narrative of the Expedition, where Dr. 
Williams' translations of the letters appear to have been submitted to the hand of 
an editor, and in Spalding's " Japan Expedition," p. 276. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 73 

present this letter to the high officers and others who manage 
affairs. That which we have received is meagre and trifling, as 
our persons are insignificant, so that we are ashamed to come 
before distinguished persons ; we are ignorant of arms and their 
uses in battle, nor do we know the rules of strategy and discip- 
line ; we have, indeed, uselessly whiled away our months and 
years, and know nothing. We have heard a little of the 
customs and knowledge of the Europeans and Americans, and 
have desired to travel about in the five great continents, but the 
maritime prohibitions of our country are exceedingly strict, and 
for foreigners to enter the ' inner land,' or for natives to go to 
other countries, are alike among the immutable regulations. 
Therefore our desire to travel has been checked, and could only 
go to and fro in our breasts, unable to be uttered, and our feet 
hampered so as not to stir. This had been the case for years, 
when happily the arrival of so many of your ships anchoring in 
our waters now for many days, and our careful and continuous 
examination of the kind and humane conduct of your officers 
and their love of others, has excited the desire of years which 
now struggles for its exit. We have decided on a plan, which 
is very privately to request you to take us aboard of your ships 
and secretly carry us to sea, that we may travel over the five 
continents, even if it is disregarding our laws. We hope you 
will not regard our humble request with disgust, but will enable 
us to carry it out ; whatever we are able to do to serve you will 
be considered as orders as soon as we hear it. When a lame 
man sees another walking, or a pedestrian sees another riding, 
would he not be glad to be in his place ? How much more 
now, since for our whole lives we could not go beyond 30 
degrees east and west, and 25 degrees from north to south, 
when we behold you come riding on the high winds and career- 
ing over the vast waves, with lightning speed coasting along the 
five continents, does it appear as if the lame had a way to walk, 
or the walkers an opportunity to ride ! We hope you who 
manage this business will condescend to regard and grant our 



1/4 ^ JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

request ; but, as the restrictions of our country are not yet 
removed, if this matter becomes known, we shall have no place 
to flee, and doubtless must suffer the extremest penalty ; and this 
would greatly grieve your kindness and benevolence of heart to 
your fellowmen. We trust to have our request granted, and 
also that you will secrete us until you sail, so as to avoid all risk 
of danger to life ; and when we return here at a future day, we 
are sure that what has passed will not be very closely investi- 
gated. Though rude and unpracticed in speech, our desires are 
earnest, and we hope that you will regard us in compassion, nor 
doubt or oppose our request. April loth." 

Inclosed was this note : " The inclosed letter contains the 
earnest request we have had for many days, and which we tried 
many plans to get off to you at Yokohama in a fishing boat by 
night, but the cruisers were too thick, and none others were 
allowed to come alongside, so that we were in great uncertainty 
what to do. Learning that the ships were comiing here we have 
come to wait, intending to seize a punt to come to the ship, but 
have not succeeded. Trusting that your honors will consent, 
to-morrow night after people are quiet we will be at Kakisaki in 
a punt at a place where there are no houses near the beach ; we 
sincerely wish to have you come to the spot to meet us, and 
thus carry out our hopes to their fruition. April 25th." 

They came up the ladder by the help of the quartermaster, 
but unluckily their punt slipped away, as they left it, and drifted 
off. The Commodore was told their errand and about the 
above letter, but he could not take them without violating the 
spirit of the Treaty. It was a severe disappointment to them, 
but I told them that other ships would come here in which they 
might get off, and that they m.ust not be oversorry at this 
refusal. They were put ashore in a boat and directly to leeward 
in order if possible to get their own, but it was too dark to see 
it. They were more ordinary looking men than I had expected 
to see, but evidently men of education, twenty-three and twenty- 
five years old — neither parents or children to keep them in Japan 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 7$ 

— and were probably just what they said they were,- eagerly 
wishing to go to the United States, though some said they were 
thieves, others spies sent by the officers to see how far we would 
keep the Treaty, and others that they were refugees from 
justice. I am afraid the loss of the punt containing their swords, 
etc., will involve them in trouble ; it was picked up by one of 
the cruisers in the harbor, and some officials came aboard to 
inquire about it, but of course we told them nothing. 

Mr. Pegram and Mr. Jones went with us to-day to Susaki, 
a town of two hundred and thirty houses, situated near the 
beach just outside of the harbor, and offering nothing of 
interest ; much stone and firewood were lying along the beach 
to export, some of the former glistening in the sun from the 
quantity of crystals of pyrites in it. A short walk, during 
which Mr. Jones returned on board, brought us to Soto-ura, a 
miserable hamlet of thirty or forty houses, the inmates of which 
received us pleasantly. Beyond this was a quarry where large 
blocks of bluish amygdaloid were slid down the hills on a tram 
road ; this rock would make a fine article of export to California 
for building. Going on to Shirahama, we tarried awhile in a 
temple, the walls of which were nearly covered with paintings 
of various sorts, all labeled ^ f^, and showing the low state of 
the fine arts, if nothing else. The officials were, apparently, glad 
of a chance to do something in this village, for they made many 
efforts to keep everybody away from us, and accompanied us 
over the hills to Hongo. The walk was a pleasant one, and 
afforded more chances for picking up new words than new- 
flowers. It was amusing to see the women skulking under the 
banks to get out of our way, and still desirous of getting a look 
at the dreadful men. 

Friday, April 2^lh. — The rate at which it is arranged that 
our coin shall be taken renders the price of all articles which are 
procured more than double what they are usually sold at. The 
Commodore has agreed upon 1200 cash as the worth of a 
dollar, while tlie people pay nearly 3000 as the equivalent of the 



I'/G A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

same weight in silver ; when, therefore, we buy articles in the 
shops for silver the people reckon the money at their valuation 
of cash, but when, according to the arrangement, the shopman 
takes them to the guardhouse where the official comprador has 
his office, the other rate of exchange is adopted, and cheating is 
supposed to be extensively carried on, while in fact much of it 
is owing to this unequal valuation of the dollar. The com- 
plaints of the men who buy with silver are loud, while those 
who take cash ashore have no complaints to make, because they 
have already paid their discount on board. Articles of fine 
workmanship are few here, but the best are rapidly sold, and if 
the officials only took a moderate percentage on them I would 
let the shopmen have the profit of the exchange for a while, 
until aj'uster valuation was made out. 

Saturday, April 29///. — Dr. Morrow made a small collec- 
tion of algae and soft corals to-day along the beach ; the exist- 
ence of the latter in this latitude shows the warmth of the seas. 
An excursion was made by the surveyors to the rocky islets off 
the mouth of the harbor, which were found to be much greater 
protection to it from a south and southeast swell than had been 
supposed. This harbor survey is now nearly finished, and the 
two sunken rocks in it are to be signalized by buoys, in doing 
which the Japanese claim the duty of bearing a part of the 
expense. This proposition on their part shows a higher sense 
of care and protection for shipping than we had given them 
credit for, and more than the Chinese have ever exhibited ; the 
same desire to improve will soon do away with the restrictions 
which now impede the natural extension of their commerce. 
How much, too, can be hoped from the introduction of true 
knowledge and religion, which I can hardly doubt are in some 
way to be brought among them. 

In going about among the shops, I found that the house- 
hold was almost always under the same roof, and the female 
part of it had something to say respecting traffic. In most 
shops the goods are kept in drawers when they can be, and only 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. I77 

coarse crockery, grain, bamboo-ware, and other coarse, cheap 
articles, were seen. There is no counter, but the two parties sit 
on the same mat to trade, and few precautions are apparently 
taken against theft. No money changers line the streets as in 
Canton, nor do we see anything hawked through the streets ; a 
few peddlers are met in our rambles, but there is much less 
of such trade than in China, and not nearly such an air of 
industry and bustle. Only one school has been found, and the 
boys who throng around us are seldom able to read, so far 
as I can ascertain. In respect to slovenly habits, they and Chi- 
nese lads of the same class are about the same, while both 
sexes, old and young, are, if anything, more degraded in respect 
to morals ; the dress of this people is far more exceptionable 
and less modest than the Chinese. 

Sunday, April 2f>th. — In consequence of a threatening 
squall there was no service on board this or the other ships, and 
the day was quietly spent. I^rge numbers of officers and men 
went to Simoda where trading was briskly carried on, as if the 
obligations of a Sabbath had no stringency here, and there was 
no need of observing it. If officers ever set an example of 
regard for a Sabbath the effect v/ould be better than the pro- 
mulgation of any law. 

Monday, May ist. — Before going out of town, we went 
into a few shops, in most of which we found nothing worth 
buying or hardly worth looking at. The common ware is very 
rnuch like that used by the Chinese, nor do the shapes of the 
dishes differ very much from those seen in China, the same 
customs inducing the same forms. The common lacquered 
cups and trays at meals present nothing unusual in style or ex- 
cellent in workmanship. In one shop a good-natured pair 
showed us most of their wares, sold us a lot of raw hemp and a 
box, and exchanged eight large cash for the same worth of 
Chinese coin. The tidy daughter was standing by, a good 
comment on the housewifery, to whom I gave a picture book I 
had, much to the joy of the mother. V/e saw nothing worth 



178 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

notice until we had reached the village of Nakanozhe, where we 
wished to inquire what direction to take for the paper tree, but 
no one would show us or go with us. However, we got a 
sight of a rice-hulling mill, and were talking with the owner, 
when a woman came running up and began to tell me she was 
the shopkeeper's wife of whom we had bought the flax and box, 
and had been ordered by the officers to get back the large 
cash she let me have and give up the picture book too. She 
had run a mile to overtake us, and begged me to let her go 
back to Simoda with the eight cash, holding up the string I had 
given her ; of course, she could not be refused, but this exhibi- 
tion of littleness on the part of the Japanese officials shows the 
character of their espionage and oppression. I could not learn 
why she had told them of the transaction at all. 

Going up over the hills beyond the village of Rendai-zhi, 
the boys showed us the paper-tree just in time to find flowers 
and fruit on it. We saw the tools for beating the pulp out and 
jars for holding it, and molds, with a heap of the fresh paper, 
some wet and some drying on boards in the sun. 

The people received us kindly in all the hamlets far up the 
valley over the hill, and we stopped at a bridge Vv'here the 
Inodza River was about a good leap across, being pleasantly 
told by a peddler that there was nothing at all beyond, not the 
least thing, and the day was far spent. It was one of the best 
rambles I have had, the people accompanying us along the path 
asking us for cash, for autographs, or for information, in the 
most courteous manner. 

Tuesday, May 2nd. — The " Macedonian " came in from 
the Bonin Islands this evening, having been three days in return- 
ing from Port Lloyd, where she left an anchor and brought 
threescore turtles — all there were to be had. The population 
has decreased since last year, and the United States consul 
left there by Perry has gone off in search of better quarters, 
making thereby a good move. All the stock left there has 
disappeared, nor have the seeds come to maturity, and, except 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1/9 

the turtles and potatoes brought away, there is Httle new 
or interesting added to our present stock of information or 
stores. 

In a small cove near the village of Ooura, where we went 
to collect seaweed, we found traprock in regular pentagonal 
basalt, the columns divided from each other distinctly, dipping 
about 80° S. The rock was not coarse grained, nor was it very 
hard, many perforations being seen in the base made by shell 
fish. In another place, the trap was very coarse, full of cells, 
and resembling scoria. 

Wednesday, JSIay yd. — Our walk to-day led us by a small 
plat of the Bignonia tomentosa, or kiri of the Japanese, which 
they cultivate for its oil to use in varnishes, mixing it with the 
juice of the varnish tree. Several patches of the tree have been 
seen at various times in our rambles. Near the town we passed 
a small shrine or vna dedicated to Shio-ichi-inari-dai-mio-jin, 
which possessed nothing of interest except two doorway 
guardians of foxes, carved in a passable manner, with very 
bushy tails. The shrine itself is on the hilltop, reached by a 
flight of stairs and, as usual, surrounded by trees, recalling to 
mind the idolatry of the old Jews among their groves and under 
every green tree. Why these demigods are enshrined in hill- 
tops is not very clear, unless the people choose pleasant places 
for themselves in worshipping dumb images. The next thing of 
interest to-day was a visit to a schoolhouse in a temple, where 
fourteen low writing tables were spread about the room, high 
enough to write on when sitting on the floor. The boys come 
at eight o'clock and go home at eleven o'clock ; the afternoon 
session is from twelve to four p.m. In all about fifty boys come, 
and the teacher receives presents from his pupils as they please. 
In the room stood a gigantic image of Buddha, with the past 
and future Buddhas at each side ; all were of copper, the 
largest about twenty feet high, the others nearly man's size, all 
in a sitting posture. No priests lived here. There are five other 
schools in Simoda for boys, where they learn writing, keeping 



l8o A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

of accounts, and different styles of epistolary composition. Two 
others have been met out of town. 

TImrsday, May 4th. — The " Lexington " left the harbor this 
day for Lewchew, where she is to remain until the rest of the 
fleet j'oins her. It rained most of the morning, and after dinner 
I went ashore to see the prefect respecting letters of introduc- 
tion to be sent to Hakodade by the three ships which the Com- 
modoi'e sends ahead of the flagship. The necessity of doing all 
that the time allowed in supplying the bazaar was also urged, 
and of taking off the restrictions which impeded the free inter- 
course, to which he gave partial assent. The power exercised 
over the mass of people by their officers must require a large 
force to uphold it, or else the fear produced by this system of 
espionage renders each individual so isolated and conscious that 
he has no alternative but entire submission, that the police is 
less than would be necessary in any other country. What 
requires a powerful army in Austria is done in Japan by render- 
ing every person isolated, and thus; 'accessible by a single order 
backed by only the messenger who takes it. Yet the introduc- 
tion of free opinions here would soon show the rulers the need 
of changing their policy, and perhaps a revolution would 
gradually be made by the diffusion of such sentiments among 
all classes without a convulsion. 

Saturday, May 6th. — One of the men fell from the fore- 
topsail yard about noon yesterday and was so dreadfully 
bruised that he died about sunset, having his reason to the last, 
for in his fall his head was untouched. This morning the 
officials, came off to inquire respecting the casualty, and our 
wishes in respect to the funeral and burial. Mr. Portman and I 
accompanied them ashore after breakfast, and they stated the 
matter to the prefect, who said that at present only temporary 
arrangements could be made for a burial ground, and he must 
await the arrival of the commissioners before definitively setting 
apart a spot of ground for a foreign cemetery. He and the 
others decided on burying the body at Kakizaki, and a place 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. l8l 

was cleared in the cemetery attached to the Yoku-zhen zhl 
3g ^^ ^ in that village, and the funeral took place about five 
P.M., the whole population being present to see the ceremonies. 
At the same time the Commodore was entertaining the towns- 
folk at Simoda with the band. The tombs and inscriptions in 
this cemetery were different in many respects from those at 
Simoda, though on the whole alike. On many of the epitaphs 
the phrases, "returned to the original," |§ jc, " returned " or 
"joined to the company," [pj '^ , "gathered to the original," 
^ TC, " annihilated " or " absorbed," ^, were inscribed 
instead of the exclamation " Wonderful Buddha !" The words 
^■j[2> " believing scholar," and fg ;^ , "believing woman," 
were joined to the name followed by the word J^, "seat ;" some 
epitaphs had a space left for the wife's name to be added, and 
many gave the names of the children as well as parents, all on 
one face of the stone. The grove of pines on the hill renders 
the spot a sheltered one, and it is a more desirable place than 
one in Simoda. Here, surrounded by Japanese, lies the body 
of poor Parish who had run away from his parents in Hebron, 
Connecticut, and had given them no notice of his course since, 
an instructive commentary on the rashness of disobedience to 
parents. 

Sunday, May yth. — Rev. Mr. Jones gave a discourse on 
the casualty and warning Providence just fresh in our minds, 
which was calculated to do good, and I hope will be blessed to 
some of the man's mates. The Commodore heard last evening 
that the two men who had come off to the ship on the 25 th ult. 
were caged on shore. Mr. Bent and I went to see them this 
morning, but were too late, as they had been taken off to Yedo 
at daylight. The keeper of the house told us they were im- 
prisoned for going aboard our vessels, and had been detained 
here until orders were received from Yedo, but I learned 
nothing as to the probable punishment they are likely to receive, 
though I fear the worst. The cage was about six feet long by 
three wide and four and a half high, quite large enough to sit 



'182 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

and sleep in, and entered by crawling through a low door ; it is 
probably just such a cage as McCoy and his fellows were at 
last shut up in. It seems that criminals are not examined in 
Simoda, but are sent to Niraiyama, a town about twenty ri 
north, where Tarozaiyemon, the deputy of Toda, the prince of 
Idzu, lives, and judges them. The present case, however, did 
not come under his jurisdiction. 

Monday, MarcJi ^th. — Mr. Pegram accompanied us up the 
valley beyond Eenday-zhi, in which we met many well disposed 
people and some new plants. The farmers were preparing their 
rice plats for sowing the grain, and laid a layer of dock and 
other soft leaves on the watery mesh which was so soft that it 
was easily trodden beneath the surface by a man walking over 
it with a pair of snowshoes, which he held upon his feet by 
means of a string passing round the forepart, his feet bearing 
down on the back. This subsoil would soon be decomposed 
and furnish support to the growing shoots whose roots would 
thus be more easily lifted. It was a singular operation to see 
the naked fellows dabbling about in the mud and preparing 
these plats. Many sick persons applied to us to day for relief, 
and we could only ask them to come aboard ship, which I am 
afraid none of them will be allowed to do. One was a case of 
bronchitis, one of rheumatism, and several ophthalmic cases as 
well as other diseases of a minor kind. I told the people I 
thought many of their aihnents of the eye were ascribable to 
the custom of shaving the eyebrows of the women, and that to 
keep them clean would be one way of curing them. A physi- 
cian would find a large field for his efforts among the Japanese, 
but I doubt his being allowed to practice. 

A pictorial representation of our squadron and description 
annexed, and an account of the war between England and 
China, were seen to-da}^ by officers, but neither of them could 
be purchased ; the authorities are so whimsical in their con- 
duct that it is impossible to follow them or account for the 
orders by the actions of the people. A lot of ginseng was 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 83 

bargained for at i6o cash, but Tatsnoske would not let it go 
for 1 3. 40. 

Tuesday, May gth. — Three of the officers went on a hunt- 
ing excursion yesterday, and managed to kill one live pheasant, 
shoot off a tail feather from another and buy a dead fox, for 
which they had a tramp of twenty-five or thirty miles. Getting 
back to Simoda about nine p.m., they concluded to remain 
ashore all night, but, though the priests were willing enough, 
the officials and interpreter were not, and came in to order the 
party to go off to the ship, using violent language and behaving 
in a most impertinent manner, besides calling in a guard of 
soldiers and having lamps placed in the room. Every effort was 
made to appease them, but unsuccessfully until one of the sailors 
was told to get out the arms, whereupon the men and the 
lantern bearers soon vanished, their superiors having gone before. 
The guard remained outside of the room all night, and at dawn 
the officers came aboard. The whole transaction was so im- 
pudent that notice was taken of it as soon as it was convenient, 
and Mr. Bent with Nicholson and Tansell were sent in uniform 
to report to the prefect. Tatsnoske was half drunk last night, 
and it required some sharpness to make him speak out to his 
superior, who at first wished to shift the matter to the commis- 
sioners and to inculpate us as also having done wrong in stop- 
ping ashore, as having violated the Treaty, and also as having 
mistaken their design in placing a guard. However, the might 
being on our side, the right was too, and by a threat of going to 
Yedo an apology was drawn from the prefect with a promise 
that such usage would not be repeated, and the officers might 
stop ashore whenever they pleased all night. In truth, the 
insolence of the officials was the principal point to be checked, 
and they will soon learn we are not going to be treated slight- 
ingly with impunity. 

Of all heathen nations I have ever heard described, I think 
this is the most lewd. Modesty, judging from what we see, 
might be said to be unknown, for the women make no attempt 



1S4 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

to hide the bosom, and every step shows the leg above the 
knee ; while the men generally go with the merest bit of rag, 
and that not always carefully put on. Naked men and women 
have both been seen in the streets, and uniformly resort to the 
same bath house, regardless of all decency. Lewd motions, 
pictures and talk seem to be the common expression of the viler 
acts and thoughts of the people, and this to such a degree as to 
disgust everybody. Alas for the condition and excellence of a 
simple, heathen people, dreamed of by moralists who never saw 
what they prate of! 

Thursday, May wth. — Yesterday a driving storm of rain 
kept everybody on board ship, and not till this afternoon could 
we easily go ashore. I saw to-day a board obtained from the 
two imprisoned men which seems to have been written for our 
inspection, though the language is guarded, and would be almost 
inexplicable without knowing the circumstances : — 

" When a hero fails in his designs, his conduct is then 
regarded like that of a thief or outlaw ; (we have 
been) seized publicly and then guarded, darkly im- 
prisoned (here) for many days, treated roughly and 
proudly by the village elder and headmen, whose 
harshness is very great. Yet we can look up without 
reproaching ourselves, and it can novv? be seen whether 
a hero will act like one. 
" Since a journey through the sixty countries (Japan) was 
not enough to satisfy our desires, to travel in the five 
great continents was once our hearts' desire ; but 
suddenly we missed our aim and are now fallen into a 
half-sized house, where eating, sleeping, resting, sitting, 
are all difficult, and escape impossible. If we weep, we 
appear like fools ; if we smile, we are deemed to be 
rogues. Alas ! silent we must rest." 
No clue will probably be obtained to their fate while we are 
here. 

Friday, May 1 2th. — Everybody who could leave the ships 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 85 

went ashore this morning to buy or settle for things they wished, 
and to take a final walk through the town. I went a way 
through the valley with Mr. Pegram and Lanier, and enjoyed 
the ramble as well as found some new plants. On board many 
hundreds of dollars were paid to the official for the supplies 
furnished, which at the high rate of exchange left them an 
enormous profit, as much as three hundred per cent in some 
cases. This unfair mode of trade doubtless will henceforth be 
changed by making our coins worth more cash. 

Wednesday, May lyth. — Hakodade Bay. 

The two steamers left Simoda early on the 1 3th and had a 
very pleasant trip to this port. A shoal, supposed to be coral 
from the examination of the lead, was passed near Cape Blanc, 
and so alarmed the Commodore that we saw nothing more of the 
coast till near Cape Sambu, and then again Cape Nord-Est, and 
the entrance of the straits. A strong current or tide was with 
us up the coast, and coming into the entrance of the straits, it 
turned against us so strong that it was only to be stemmed by 
steamers. The well-defined shores of the entrance render it 
easy to make the ship's position as soon as the fog or mist 
allows the captain to see his headlands. 

The boats from the three ships were soon alongside to 
show the steamers to their berths, and as the harbor opened to 
view everyone was surprised at its security and spaciousness, 
and the easy access to it. The town lies on the eastern side of 
the harbor, twenty-five ;/ east of Matsmai, and is reported to 
contain a thousand houses, some of which appear like ware- 
houses for size, as seen from the ship, and all show better from 
their position on the slope of the hill than Simoda. The hill 
rises behind the mass of the dwellings, protecting it on the east, 
but the land slopes down to a plain on the north of the town and 
bay, stretching away miles to the base of some high ridges 
whose tops are now covered with snow. To the east stretched 
a low, long point, defining the western side of the harbor, 
backed by high land. The snow on these and the hills beyond 



1 86 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

the straits gave a wintry aspect to the scenery, quite invigorat- 
ing to us who had j'ust left the warm valleys of Simoda. 

At noon a party of officials came aboard with whom Mr. 
Bent and I went to the " Macedonian," where we gave them the 
letter for the authorities here, which had been written by 
the commissioners at Yokohama. The bunyo, called Kudoo 
Mogoro, had been much terrified by the arrival of the three 
ships and, in the absence of Namura and Kenzhiro (who had 
not yet reached the place with instructions) he was utterly at a 
loss how to act and had refused to see Captain Abbott, though 
wood and water had been supplied to him. Our explanations 
and a perusal of the Treaty illuminated their minds more to the 
purpose, and they seemed gratified at the prospect of intercourse, 
a meeting being appointed on the morrow on shore to see the 
bunyo. No tidings of the Treaty had reached them, and a 
journey of thirty days was necessary to come here from Yedo, 
prolonged or shortened at times according to the season ; of 
course a trip of only four days surprised them a little. 

Thursday, May \Zth. — Four or five of us went ashore this 
morning and were received in some state at a sort of public 
reception room on the beach, the entrance to which was by 
steps up a stone sea-wall into a yard secluded from sight m the 
boat by a guard house. The path across this yard was laid 
with mats, and a guard of a dozen stood, in order to do honor 
to our entrance into the hall, dressed in blue leggings, swords 
and ceremonial j'ackets. The officials who received us were the 
four whom we saw yesterday, and they politely asked us to be 
seated on square forms covered with red felt, handing tea, pipes, 
etc. The room was matted, two sides were partitioned off by 
screens, and one side was apparently made with closets in the 
wainscot, as recesses in it were two feet deep ; the ceiling was 
eight or nine feet from the floor and formed the floor of a loft. 
In the yard were a few dwarf pines and a pretty bronze water 
jar, a finer piece of such work than I had before seen. After 
our names and titles were all taken the three officers came in, 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 8/ 

and our conference began. The various advantages of trade, 
houses on shore, Uberty to ramble about, and whatever had been 
allowed us at Simoda, were all recapitulated, and the same 
demanded of the officers here in compliance with the provisions 
of the Treaty. The non-arrival of the envoys from Yedo had 
prevented them from ascertaining the views of the Court, and 
they wished for time to consider upon our demands and repre- 
sentations, to which we assented till nine o'clock to-morrow 
morning, leaving all the papers with them, except one in which 
they referred to the stringency of their prohibitions. The inter- 
view was rather tedious by reason of its having mostly to be 
written in Chinese, for I did not like to trust to talking, and 
after settling the hour to-morrow for an interview with the 
Commodore and the highest functionary here we proposed a 
walk, to which they willingly agreed. 

Going through an alley by the side of the house, we 
reached the street where stood four horses saddled, on which 
the officials had probably ridden to the house. The street was 
twenty or more feet wide and partly macadamized ; the dust 
had just been laid, and runners were sent before to lay the 
people too, for on both sides of the street they were kneeling in 
rows as we passed. The shops and houses were all shut, not so 
entirely on our account, it would appear, as to keep them warm, 
but the constant succession of papered windows made the streets 
look dull. The houses all had a porch towards the street, 
behind which rose the gable end of the roof thirty feet from the 
ground ; the roofs were thickly strewed with cobble stones, and 
each ridgepole bore a bucket of water with a broom in it, which, 
with other buckets in the way, were preventives of fires. No 
women or children were seen among the crowd, which was not 
very large or noisy. 

In our walk we went to a large temple, called the " Pro- 
tecting the Country's Hill," which exhibited a finer specimen of 
Japanese architecture than we had before seen. The tiled roof 
rose rapidly fully sixty feet from the ground, and was supported 



1 88 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

by an intricate system of girdles and posts resting on varnished 
pillars ; the carving and gilding was superior to anything hereto- 
fore seen, and the neatness of the hall added to its elegance, or 
more properly constituted it. The general arrangement resem- 
bled those formerly seen, but on the six stone guardians placed 
in the little shed at the entrance were as many Chinese-shaped 
skull caps, put on as if to keep them warm, and looking so odd 
as to set us a laughing. Another temple, also Buddhistic, was 
visited ; it was much out of repair and, like the large one, had 
no tablets in it. In some of the temples the images are furnished 
■with a nimbus of copper, and one image of a female had a bam- 
bino, as if a copy of the Virgin. Our stroll took us through 
several streets, and we returned to the landing to go aboard, 
on the whole gratified with the reception. In the evening a few 
oiificers took a similar walk, in the course of which they came 
upon a masked battery of three guns, evidently just arrjied and 
probably commenced since the arrival of the " Macedonian." 
They v/ere kindly received by officers and people both, shown 
into some houses, and no hindrance placed in their way to going 
anywhere. The town presents a better appearance than Simoda, 
and the robust people we see proves a healthy climate and plenty 
of provisions. 

Friday, May igth. — At the interview on shore this morn- 
ing the bunyo handed in a long document in which replies were 
made to the points stated yesterday, and most of them granted ; 
the paper was drawn up very well, and the dilemma in which 
he was placed by the non-arrival of orders from Yedo stated, 
especially in reference to the demand we had made for three 
houses, which by a singular usage of the Chinese word used 
they had understood as meaning official residences and court. 
This impression was removed and evidently to his satisfaction. 
The other points were conceded and, after ascertaining the rank 
of the officer who is to visit the Commodore at noon, Matsmai 
Kageyu, a relative of the prince, Matsmai Idzu no kami, we 
went back to the ship. At the time, he and the three officers 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 89 

whom we saw reached the " Mississippi " almost seasick with 
the motion of their shallop, and not over easy at venturing into 
such a place, as they now for the first time saw. I guess their 
first idea was, at seeing the marines drawn up on deck, that they 
had been entrapped, but erelong they were put at ease. A 
copy of the Chinese translation of the Treaty was given them, 
and the Japanese original handed them for perusal, after some 
other points were settled. After the Commodore left the Japa- 
nese remained till evening, and were amused in many ways, 
greatly to their instruction and quietude, so that when they left 
they were put wholly at their ease respecting our designs. The 
engine, the guns, cables, rooms, and equipment of the ship, were 
explained as well as they could be, and everything done to 
make them aware of their neighbor across the Pacific, with 
whom they were now to come in contact. We were all much 
pleased with the gentlemanly bearing and intelligence of the two 
chief men who were in some respects superior to most of our 
official friends at the South. 

I was told that the Ainos have all been driven or moved to 
the north of Yeso, none of them living here ; their number was 
stated at 30,000, The Japanese occupy the southern end of 
Karafto, or Sagalien Island, and one of the clerks present had 
been there some years since, glad to return from such a cold, 
uncivilized region. No coal is found in Yeso, and he took two 
pieces ashore as a muster. The principality of Mutsu, and 
Dewa too, on the opposite shore of Nippon furnish gold and 
silver ; the former is a large and rich state. 

Saturday, May 2.0th. — At the interview this morning, the 
inability of the prince to come here from Matsmai and the diffi- 
culty of seeing him even if the Commodore went there were 
expressed in the most decisive terms, while also the position of 
Matsmai Kageyu as his deputy, invested with as full powers as 
he could have to manage all affairs connected with us, was 
explained. If the Commodore pleases to think that all this is 
false, and that he can get the prince to come by ignoring the 



I go A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

powers of his deputy, it seems by far the best way for him to go 
to Matsmai as soon as he Hkes. The officers here are willinsr 
temporarily to allow us to trade, the stipulations of the Treaty 
showing them that that has been agreed to ; and to-day it has 
been begun in a manner which must rather suiprise them, and 
will doubtless equally please the shopkeepers as any other 
course of conduct. The valuation of our silver dollar, half and 
quarter was placed at 4800, 2400 and 1 200 cash, while a com- 
parison of our gold coins with theirs made a gold dollar worth 
only 1045 cash, showing that gold to silver here is only about 
4.7 to I, a most extraordinary thing, if their coins are of equal 
purity with ours. Copper must be very cheap, but this does 
not surprise us like the other. After the interview we went to 
three places, which were selected for the same purposes as 
those at Simoda, and also into two or three shops to explain the 
manner of trading to some officers we saw in them. The 
aiuthorities seem to be pacified and now, their fears allayed, will, 
I think, be ready to manage things better than if Namura and 
his " cross-looker " had come. All this gives me considerable 
practice in Japanese, and I am in hopes to make the people 
somewhat acquainted with our character and intentions and 
aware that really they have nothing to fear. Some few women 
were seen to-day, and more children, but the people have not 
thought it altogether safe yet to bring their families back to 
town. It is unpleasant to see how they bow down when the 
"authorities pass by, though it should be remembered that 
custom has made this, which appears abj'ect to us, the natural 
exhibition of obeisance. In their own intercourse the officials 
are far more familiar than at the South, and treat us, too, very 
friendly. With the chief man, Yendo Matazayemon, we have 
become almost intimate, and with Ishizaka Kanz5 and Kudoo 
Mugoro well acquainted ; the last is called bunyo, and neither 
he or the other talk much. Some of the writers are affable, and 
among all there is a degree of respect and courteousness towards 
each other and us which contrasts well and favorably with the 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. Ipt 

people at the South. It is more agreeable, too, to see a well 
dressed crowd than such almost nude men and loosely attired 
women as Simoda presents. The people here are on the whole 
larger, I think, than there, and indeed should be, as the climate 
is colder. In a walk through the streets we saw many fireproof 
granaries or warehouses, and the precautions against fire show 
the fears felt. Provisions are not plenty now, salmon, skate and 
plaice forming most of the fish brought ; crabs and clams are to 
he had, but not many vegetables. The Irish potato is grown 
here, not in season now, though we have got a few ; we know 
not how it was introduced, but probably by means of some of 
the ships stopping for supplies. 

Monday, May 22nd. — The Commodore and two captains 
went ashore this morning to return the visit of Matsmai Kageyu 
whom we found ready to receive us, and mild as usual. The 
credentials were given from his prince, empowering him to come 
and receive the Americans and treat them politely, but after he 
had shown them and made a translation into Chinese, he com- 
mitted himself by declaring that he had full powers to settle 
everything ; since the question of defining the limits was one he 
could not settle. We had a tedious conversation respecting it ; 
ten ri was given them as a limit, but this distance would reach 
to the opposite shore, and therefore seven r/ was proposed as at 
Simoda, but even this was beyond his powers. He evidently is 
a man of little energy, afraid of taking any responsibility, and 
yet gentle in all his refusals, as if desirous to oblige us by 
assenting. In an hour and over the Commodore became tired 
with the slow progress, and gave him till evening for an answer, 
moving at the same time to go on a walk over the town. We 
went to two or three temples and through the streets which 
were quite bare of people, and most of the shops shut. Two or 
three negroes were standing near a shop and struck Yendo with 
surprise, asking several times if their faces were not painted, for 
he had no idea the koruvibo were anything like them. In the 
evening we got the same reply that the limits could not now be 



192 A JOURNAI> OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

defined, and also a long paper of complaints against the conduct 
of Americans on shore yesterday — a heathen prince complaining 
of the bad conduct of Christians in his town on the Sabbath, 
gambling in the temples, climbing over walls to get into houses 
and yards, carrying off things out of the shops, and acting like 
madmen ! Such is a decent moral man when the restraints of 
society are taken from off his natural heart. 

Tuesday, May 2'^rd. — In consequence of this conplaint all 
ofificers were kept on board to-day, and the matter endeavored 
to be rectified by requiring of the officers, and among the petty 
officers, [that any debts due on shore be mentioned, and all 
swords purchased given up, as it was said this in particular had 
been complained of. A lot of presents for the prince of 
Matsmai, his deputy and the three local officers were taken 
ashore, and an answer given verbally to the complaint this 
morning. It is probable that these officers were alarmed at the 
rush on shore and, knowing their own dangerous responsibility 
if anything disastrous should happen, they made the most of the 
ill conduct which disgraced a few to keep all away. Investiga- 
tion was demanded, and offers made to return what had not 
been paid for, or pay all demands. It will doubtless be remem- 
bered by the officials and people too, and time only can efface 
the bad impression now made. In the afternoon the Commo- 
dore came ashore and took a quantity ot articles which had 
been brought there for his inspection, none of which were very 
fine, though presenting a considerable variety. The old patterns 
of silk and cottons are as curious as anything offered. 

Wednesday, May 2A^th. — An effort was made to bring 
together a number of things for the officers, and by three o'clock 
Mr. Bent and I managed to induce the collector to get a broker 
to bring in a tolerable variety of articles, not nearly so many as 
we wished, but still measurably gratifying to the purchasers, 
and in the same degree satisfactory to me, as I was afraid I 
should not at all satisfy or please. In the morning Yendo and 
Ishizuka Kanzo had their portraits taken, and they were hugely 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. I93 

pleased to see themselves on the plate with their retainers behind 
them holding spears, caps, and bearing their distinctive coat of 
arms. No one here had ever heard of the art, and curiosity, 
wonder and delight were about equally exhibited in their 
manner and questions. The 'day was good and the result 
pleasing to everybody. 

An answer was returned this morning to the long repre- 
sentation made upon the ill conduct of some from our ships, in 
wh'ch Perry declared that seven ri, or sixteen miles, must be 
also considered as the limit within which Americans might 
ramble. I think no more trouble will now arise, as the mode of 
conducting the bazaar seems to give general satisfaction to all 
parties. 

T/iursday, May 2$t/t. — The shopkeepers in the street, 
finding that their customers are all going to the fair, have begun 
to try to better themselves, and to invite customers into their 
shops, in order that the government broker may not get all the 
profits ; this competition will of course improve the market, and 
call out the goods from their hiding places, and, if it does not 
again produce trouble, will be an improvement. The goods 
were much more numerous to-day (though some sorts of 
lackered ware were not to be had) and more people were satis- 
fied ; the variety of fabrics was greater, and some pains had 
been taken to collect a good stock. The seller had a paper 
before him with the various coins offered all drawn as accurately 
as he could make them, and placed each one on the drawing to 
see if the size corresponded, and then compared the efifigies. 

We paid a visit to Yendo to arrange about burying a man 
in the place who had died on board the " Vandalia " last 
evening ; he acceded willingly, and soon after went to one 
temple near by, but no suitable vacant space could be found in 
its compound. This temple was the Korio zhi, ^ f| ^, or 
High Dragon temple, so called probably from the carvings over 
the doorway of two scrambling dragons. Not succeeding here, 
we went out of town through the seaside gate, and about half a 



194- A JOURNAL OF THE PERKY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

mile out came to an old graveyard in which a small plat was 
set apart for the use of Americans. The place is in full view of 
the harbor and will contain twenty- five persons, allowing each 
room for a tombstone. 

There are four large Buddhist temples in the town, each of 
which exhibits the religious zeal of the people in its carvings, 
gilding, and numerous fine sculptures. The Zhiogen zhi, "^ '^ 
^, is by far the most elaborate ; the Zhetsu-gio zhi, ^ ^j ^f, 
where Brown takes daguerreotypes is well kept, but ancient and 
inferior ; the graveyard near it is an interesting place, full of 
grotesque and handsome monuments, .most of them well carved ; 
the long poles, covered with prayers, standing near them, or 
lying down, give a singular aspect to the yard. The fourth, 
the Shio-mio zhi, ^ ig ^, is old and possesses little interest. 
In addition to these there are three large Shinto temples, the 
Shimmei, jplj! ^, the Hachi-man, A il^^, and the Penten, ^ ^, 
but judging from the second-named and largest, less attention is 
paid them than to the Buddhist. If there are seven temples, 
there are also seven schools and girls are taught in them, but I 
can get no clear idea of what is studied. It must be vacation in 
all of them since we came, judging by the small number of 
children seen in the streets. Most of the dwellings and other 
houses here are built of boards standing up and made secure by 
long girders running along outside. 

Friday, May 2.6th. — The remains of the sailor were buried 
this morning, and I was able to find only a small stone on which 
to inscribe the epitaph, for all the square, handsome ones seen 
in the graveyards were, I was told, brought from Sado Island 
and other places in Nippon. The body was brought ashore at 
the landing and carried by sailors through the streets to the 
spot designated, numbers of the people lining the roads, all in 
the greatest quiet looking at the unusual procession which 
Yendo himself accompanied to the grave. In all these inter- 
ments the Japanese officers have behaved with great decorum, 
but his kindness of manner has exceeded the others, and no law 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. T95 

was quoted by him about looking at the corpse, as was the case 
with the impudent Isaboro at Simoda. 

I spent most of the day endeavoring to get up a bazaar for 
the Commodore, but did not succeed very well, as in fact the 
assortment is pretty well exhausted in town. There were some 
new things, many of which exhibited new features of Japanese 
art, and many were there desirous to get the articles as soon as 
the Commodore had made a selection. Owing to a misunder- 
standing, he did not reach shore till almost sunset and found 
several officers there (happi I}' most having gone just before) to 
whom he expressed some dissatisfaction. He took some articles 
and went off", whereupon such a grabbing for this and that 
ensued as was quite surprising to me, and not creditable to naval 
officers. I was called here and there by natives and foreigners 
at once, unable to answer half their demands, much less get 
aught even if I had wished it. I was ashamed at such an 
exhibition of American character in the eyes of the Japanese 
officers looking at the eagerness and bustle before them. 

Saturday, May 2jth. — The broker who attends at the 
bazaar was told this morning that he might sell such articles as 
he had whenever he brought them there, and manage their 
sale as he pleased ; everybody has had a chance already, and I 
am desirous of getting clear of the affair. It seems, from the 
conduct of the shopkeepers, that this broker has taken some 
means to intimidate them or to prevent them selling much, for 
it is difficult to get many fine things to-day, and their prices 
generally are very much higher, which is no wonder, considering 
the great eagerness manifested to purchase. Not having any 
particular business. Morrow and I took a stroll, going out 
beyond the graveyard, and so on to the end of the peninsula on 
which the town lies. We enjo}'ed the walk very much, found 
many plants, and saw a few people only. Some of the plants 
were old acquaintances, especially a Trillium, a Viburnum, 
an Anemone, a Mentha and others, growing naturally in the 
woods among the bamboo, a small species of which is common 



196 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

here. The extent and variety of seaweed here is great, and 
vast quantities are used for food by the people. On our return 
we went through the grove of pines and cedars behind the 
town ; a delightful place it must be in summer for the townsfolk 
to ramble in. The hilltop affords a fine view of the surrounding 
country, and the patches of snow on the western peaks showed 
us the latitude we were in. No terraces such as are seen at 
Simoda are seen here, and the plain, north of the town is neg- 
lected, naked, and almost uncultivated, the pursuits of agriculture 
occupying only a small portion of the inhabitants. The country 
is not thickly settled in the immediate vicinity, and most of the 
supplies are brought from the south, Simonoseki, Sado Island, 
Yechigo, and Ohosaka being the chief ports, from which not 
only rice, wheat, cloths, porcelain, lacquered ware and cutlery 
are brought, but also common things, as gravestones and tiles. 
What these imports are paid for with I have not been able to learn. 

The Commodore made some inquiries about shipwrecks on 
the coasts of Japan to-day, and at the same time invitations were 
given the officials to visit the ships, if the weather was fair on 
Monday. The more I see and am able to talk with these men 
the more favorably do they contrast with the same set of men 
at the south. 

Sunday, May 28///. — Early this morning I was sent ashore 
to inform Yendo of the death of another seaman on board of 
the " Vandalia," G. W. Remick by name ; he expressed a good 
natured sympathy with the death of a young man so far away 
from home and, pointing out a new wharf to land at just above 
the Commodore's house, where he wished the body to be 
brought on shore in the afternoon, asked if he should accompany 
the body, to which we, Mr. Bent being with me, said that it 
was not required by any of our usages. In the day Mr. Jones 
delivered a practical discourse on the first clause of the Lord's 
Prayer which made one feel too that to the Japanese the same 
Father extends his care, and I hope will erelong too send the 
evangel of salvation. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERUV EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. IQ/ 

Monday, May 2gth. — The rest of yesterday's Sabbath was 
pleasant in the extreme, and I was willing to begin again this 
morning. I shall not be so much harassed this week as last, 
for now trade is carried on at the custom house without my 
assistance. The officers and their friends were invited aboard 
the flagship to visit her and then to go over the " Macedonian," 
and spend the evening in seeing the performances of the Ethio- 
pian Minstrels. All came but the prince's deputy, Matsmai 
Kageyu, who had a bad cold, and left for shore after nine p.m. 
much pleased and diverted with the show and the Commodore's 
entertainment, which was got up remarkably well for the means 
and time at hand. A lot of presents were also brought at the 
same time in return for those sent by Perry to them, paper, 
umbrellas, crapes, dried salmon, fresh fish, etc., altogether worth 
about a rifle and a pistol ; to each of them had been sent a rifle, 
cavalry sword, pistol, box of tea, twelve barrels whiskey, twelve 
pieces cottons, perfumery and cherry cordial. 

Tuesday, May 30//^. — This has been a quiet day, for, after 
seeing Yendo to stir him up about the accounts of the ships and 
getting the answers respecting wrecked vessels, I took a pleasant 
walk with Dr. Gilliam after flowers, and went back to the ship 
to dinner, one of the few times I have had a good opportunity. 
In the afternoon I had to wait so long for the accounts of the 
" Vandalia " and " Macedonian " that I had time only to close 
up a letter for Canton by the former, and send Dr. Bridgman 
his book and some India ink. The weather has been so cold 
to-day as to make a fire comfortable ; the climate must be much 
colder here than in the same latitude in the United States where 
no snow can now be found on hills no higher than those here- 
abouts, the highest of which may perhaps be 3500 feet and not 
bare on the summit, so far as the glass can decide. 

Wednesday, May 315/.— My commissions multiply apace, 
as I am requested by one and another to procure things for 
them on shore, most of which are not to be had. However, I 
was able to get some things for Maury and Maxwell to-day, 



198 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

which showed at least my good intentions if I could not always 
succeed. An effort was jnade to get a block of stone here to 
take to Washington for the monument, which block Perry 
wishes to exchange for a map of that city. The " Vandalia " 
and " Macedonian " were out of sight before ten o'clock, 
leaving only a small show of two vessels in the harbor. This 
evening we learned that the commissioners had come from Yedo 
and would be ready to see the Commodore to-morrow. They 
have come so lately here that it is not yet time for them to learn 
what has been done, and it is rather too late for them to undo 
it. Mr. Bent and I went to the graveyard this evening, and 
found that a substantial fence had been put up in front of it. I 
got a shingle epitaph too, with a Thibetan inscription on it, and 
Mr. Bent procured a dog for which he had some difficulty to 
pay the man at the custom house ; when he had been forced to 
take the money he went away and erelong returned with a pair 
of white ones which he made Mr. Bent take, and before the boat 
left for the ship five or six were brought down for him to carry 
off. The breed here is like the Chinese. Horses sell for eighteen 
to twenty-five dollars for common hacks and three hundred 
dollars or more for barbs. 

Thursday, June ist, 1854. — Six years to-day since I left 
New York, and now I am thus far from that city and on the 
journey of life. 

Early this morning Fuzhiwara came aboard with a note 
from Amma Zhiunnoshin and Kenzhiro announcing their arrival 
at Hakodade, en route to Karafto whither their superior had 
already gone, and expressing a desire to meet the Commodore, 
and that the business in hand would not detain them more than 
three days. It was agreed that we should go ashore at ten to 
fix an hour for them and their suite to come on board. When 
we reached the house (Yamado) the hour of one p.m. was agreed 
upon, and I was left ashore while Mr. Bent went back to tell the 
Commodore. Meanwhile, I started off with Yebiko Zhiro to 
find a suitable stone for the Washington Monument, and fairly 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 1 99 

tired him out in the search. We went to the fishing hamlet of 
Shirasawabi east of the town, but none suitable could be seen 
around it. However, I saw specimens enough to induce me to 
get him to go up towards the hill where the stone is quarried, 
but it was another thing to get him to take so long a walk. 
Near this village most of the gravestones were covered with mats 
to preserve them from the effects of the frost during the winter, 
and the graves had just been swept and trimmed up, it being the 
5 th of the 5th month yesterday. The village was noisome from 
the drying and decaying fish in it, and I was in a hurry to get 
away. Pursuing our walk for a mile in the direction of a path 
which led up the hill, I came to a couple of long stones of red 
trachyte, just dug out, and had them marked, much to the 
gratification of my companion who was fairly used up, or else 
vexed. While we were so warm with the walk in the noontide 
sun, the sight of the snow lying on the opposite hills was rather 
tantalizing. 

On reaching the house at one o'clock, the officials requested 
us to go to the other landing, thence to take the dignitaries on 
board. None of the new ones reached the place, however, till 
three o'clock and, as they would not go off without Kenzhiro, 
we went away without them. It was a curious sight, as these 
officials were announced to be on their way to the house, to see 
the attendants and common people arrange themselves along the 
path, squatting down with caps, staffs, and other insignia in 
their hands, and bowing their heads to the ground under the 
effluence of power as it swept by them in the persons of these 
men. We stood near the landing, but they paid us no notice 
as they went into the house, Yendo escorting them. 

We had waited now so long that on the way back we met 
an order to return, and found the Commodore in high dudgeon, 
which we hardly had anything to meet by way of explanation. 
He ordered the marines in both steamers to get in readiness, and 
one hundred blue jackets to land in the morning with two field 
pieces, in order to sho^v the Japanese that he was not to be 



200 A JOURNAL OF THE PERKY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

trifled with. About half past four o'clock Amnia, Kenzhiro 
and others, with the local officers and Yendo at their head, came 
aboard ; the Dutch interpreter, Takeda Ayasaboro, had written 
out a few sentences stating that he was able only to write Dutch 
and could not speak it. He was the tallest and one of the best 
looking Japanese I have seen. The Commodore thought best 
to accept their apology, that it was owing to delay in the pre- - 
paration of a present which had detained them (a good com- 
mentary on Prov. 18: 1 6), and they were taken down into the 
cabin. The conference came to very little in addition to what 
had been before discussed with Yendo, ' and the final settlement 
of the limits to which Americans can ramble in the region of the 
town was referred to the commissioners. The disappearance of 
the women and children was ascribed to fear of us on our 
arrival, and this was now^ wearing away. The conference was 
slow but kindly, and the visitors from Yedo were gratified with 
the sight of the ship, Kenzhiro remaining in the cabin while the 
others went over the decks. He said the journey to Matsmai 
had been tedious and slow, often going only twelve miles a day, 
snow, cold, roughness and weariness being among the discom- 
modities of the way. I suspect these Japanese officials endeavor 
to live such easy lives that when they are obliged to go through 
hardships they suffer much. From his white under-dress, w^ 
learned that Takeda Ayasaboro belonged to princely blood ; he 
seemed to be often referred to by Kenzhiro who hardly ever 
asked Amma about anything. His position and learning pro- 
bably got him the place of interpreter. Before leaving, the 
Commodore told them he would return their call in state as at 
Yokohama, a proposition which pleased them all, especially 
Fuzhiwara who was glad to hear that the "sorudado" were 
coming ashore in their fine dresses. 

Friday, June 27id. — A fog soon bedimmed the prospects of 
a fine day, and before ten o'clock Perry had decided not to go 
ashore, which seemed to be the most judicious course, as the 
fog seemed likely to condense into a rain. Presents of a sword, 



A JOURNAL OF tHE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 20t 

rifle, revolver, perfumery, tea and whiskey were prepared for 
Anima and Kenzhiro, and an apologetic excuse to explain his 
non-appearance. Mr. Bent and I found the house in readiness 
to receive the party, and an unusual attendance of servants 
showed that some preparations were making for the occasion ; 
though the Japanese apparently took it in good humor, their 
disappointment was evident and great. Along the street, too, 
were many signs of the expectations of a gala and fine show 
among the people. It need not be said in what a pet the Com- 
modore and most of the officers would have been if the Japanese 
had excused themselves from an interview for what appeared to 
be such inadequate reasons ; and how many denunciations we 
should have heard ! The presents were handed to Kenzhiro, 
but the answer to the Commodore's note was not ready. The 
purveyor's bill was paid as follows for the " Powhatan" : — 

I oo baskets charcoal $ 5.25 

100 pine boards, half inch 1.38 

50. „ ,, inch, 6ft, long 0.80 

100 „ . „ „ 20ft. „ 4.67 

285 lbs. sugar @ 7 cent 

1350 sticks of wood 

500 brooms 



: ;;: z 


, 19.85 
10.69 

3.65 





. $46.-9 


$7.92 \ 

7-7^ i '" 

36.52 \ 

18.20/ •• 
>> 


15.63 

. 54-72 
. 34-12 



Total 

1000 sticks for "Southampton" 

976 ,, ,, "Mississippi" 
6733 ,, ,, "Macedodian" 
1891 „ „ "Vandalia" 

Provisions furnished "Powhatan 

$150.76 
The prices of these things were repeatedly declared to be 
equitable and sufficient, but they were so low that the Commo- 
dore made the purveyor, Inagawa, a present of a box of tea, 
and the boatmen a larger one of 900 lbs. biscuit, 3 bbls, beef 
and pork, and 60 lbs. tea, for their labor in bringing wood and 
water. With this all parties were satisfied. The two blocks of 



202 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

red trachyte came off in the afternoon, when a further small 
addition of provisions was made. Two of us went ashore to 
obtain the answer, for which we had to tarry till nearly sunset, 
when we took leave of the friends whom Mr. Bent and I had 
become quite attached to during the fortnight we had been in 
port. They also evinced very different feelings from those 
apparent at the first interview, and we parted with expressions 
of mutual goodwill. Three of the new-comers, Takeda Aya- 
saboro, Yushimi Kennozhio and Tsuji Kayemon, came off to 
the ship with us to see it more closely, and remained until it 
was too dark to see anything ; they evinced considerable know- 
ledge as well as curiosity, especially the first, whose acquaintance 
with Dutch had opened to him sources of information not ac- 
cessible to the others. 

Saturday, June yd. — Early this morning we were under 
weigh, but the fog came in so thick that both vessels came to 
anchor, and soon after a boat came alongside with Yebiko and 
Daishime to see why we had returned, supposing some accident 
had happened. They remained on board till we were ready to 
start, much interested in the appearance of the machinery in 
readiness to be put in motion. Thus ended our visit to Hako- 
dadi, forming one of the pleasantest episodes in my life in Asia. 
I expected a dull visit at a miserable fishing village, while I 
found my time and abilities employed to their highest degree, 
the whole business of interpreting thrown on me, and the duty 
of removing from the minds of the officers their apprehensions 
and disinclination to act in the absence of orders from Yedo. 
Acquaintance produced mutual trust and, as they found them- 
selves fully supported by the Treaty, it was soon seen that no 
little trouble would be avoided by meeting all our reasonable 
propositions. It was favorable to them that the lack of particu- 
lar instructions from court left them more at liberty to follow 
what the Treaty implied, and it was more favorable to us that 
we had two such persons as Matsmai and Yendo to deal with 
instead of two petty minded and hesitating men like Kondo 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 203 

Riozhi and Tatsnoske at Simoda. I have been repaid during 
the last fortnight for the years of study of this language. 

Wednesday, June jtJi. — Simoda Bay. 

The passage hither occupied just one hundred hours, fully 
fifteen more than it would have done if a thick rain yesterday 
afternoon had not made it, in the Commodore's opinion, unwise 
to go to the west of 06-sima. During the night a current 
carried the ship southeast and south, so that we did not anchor 
till nearly one o'clock ; the weather turned into bright sunshine 
to-day, showing the green hills, with their naked summits and 
patchwork of reaped and ripe fields of grain adown their sides 
in pretty contrast. The stimulus of rain and sunshine has made 
surprising improvement in the face of nature here since we left 
it twenty-five days ago. The commissioners are all here, one 
load of coal has come, and part of the supply for the bazaar. 
We went to see the prefect in regard to an early interview, 
which is to take place to-morrow. 

Jlni}'sday,Jinie ?>th. — According to previous agreement, the 
Commodore landed to-day at noon under a salute of seventeen 
g^ns, with as large an escort as the ships could muster, com- 
posing a force of marines and sailors with four field pieces, 
numbering in all, including officers and musicians, upwards of 
three hundred men. The day was unimpeachable, and the way 
from the landing to the temple was lined with the people whose 
talking, as we moved on, was not unlike many beehives in 
commotion ; so that above and below all combined to make it 
interesting to all parties. It was very different indeed from the 
visit paid by the Russian embassador Resanoff * to the envoy at 
Nagasaki, when the people were kept away and all the streets 
lined with curtains to hide even the houses from the view of the 
Russians. The music sounded gaily as the line passed into the 
yard of the temple, and the whole formed an excellent subject 
for a painting when seen from a favorable standpoint at this 
moment.' On entering the yard, the Commodore was received 

* In October, 1804. 



204 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

by Kurokawa and conducted into the main room of the build- 
ing which had been so transformed and divided off by curtains 
and folding screens that it was not easy to recognize its former 
appearance — a use which shows that the Japanese apply their 
religious edifices to the same general uses as the Chinese. In 
this main room stood the five commissioners, with Hayashi at 
their head in scarlet trowsers, and two additional ones who have 
been appointed to the body. We were conducted into a side 
room, and the two parties seated opposite just as they were ten 
weeks ago at Yokohama, except that Mr. Bent had taken the 
place of Captain Adams. The discussion which was tedious, 
continued for three hours, and only a part of the subjects intro- 
duced decided on. Lin wished to put up guard stations at the 
limits prescribed to the rambles of Americans in the region of 
Simoda, but Perry wished to have it previously ascertained that 
they were not within the seven ri agreed on by the Treaty, and 
a deputation is to visit these spots and then report. The deci- 
sion of the limits at Hakodadi was also more difficult than we 
had supposed it would be, for the Japanese were not ready even 
to make it the same there as at this place, nor to propose any 
distance themselves. 

They wished, however, to get the Commodore to take 
away the big box he had placed on the southern side of the 
entrance to the harbor, and also to remove the buoys over the 
rocks. The only explanation we could give for such a pro^ 
position on their part was, that they had construed these 
proceedings with reference to some idea of our thereby taking 
possession of the harbor or, at least, driving a nail in that 
direction. He properly refused to remove the buoys, and 
suggested the appointment of pilots before the box was taken 
away, who could show ships the dangers it cautioned them 
against ; and they agreed thereto. After this, the drawing of 
the Washington Monument was shown and the proposal made 
them to furnish a stone to put into it, adding that one had been 
procured at Hakodadi. These discussions and a collation of 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 205 

cakes and fish filled up three hours, when the session was 
adjourned. Before leaving the temple the marines were 
marched and drilled, and the manner of using the field pieces 
shown, greatly to the satisfaction of the Japanese. The Com- 
modore and his suite returned on board, but the men were 
marched down to Kakizaki, followed by a large crowd ; it was 
a gala day. to all parties except Lo, who got quarantined for not 
coming off when the ship's boats came back. 

Friday, June gth. — The slow progress yesterday induced 
the Commodore to send us ashore this morning to have a talk 
with Moriyama beforehand, in order to hasten matters to a 
conclusion, but it did not apparently have any effect, for the 
commissioners had their own matters to bring forward, some 
presents to spread out for acceptance in exchange for those 
received, and arrangements to agree on respecting valuation of 
coins and party to go and settle the limits of seven n. How 
droll those seven bald shaven men looked stretched along in a 
row, as they sat opposite me to day ! Lin in his scarlet trow- 
sers, and the silly, vacant-faced Matsusaki, one at the one end 
looking grim and dignified, the other at his end, sleepy and 
silent. These interviews are instructive, too, taking into account 
the circumstances under which we all have been brought 
together, and the Japanese officers seem qualified for their 
places, in the main. Some presents were given to Tsudzuki, 
prince of Suruga, and Takenoiichi Sheitaro, the two new com- 
missioners — rifles, swords, perfumery, etc. Some of the articles 
sent in exchange for the howitzer were fine specimens of 
manufacture, mostly lacquered ware, and fully equal to it, 
taking them all together, in value. The conversation to-day 
was more general and pleasanter than we had before, touching 
on many topics. We learned that the first four commissioners 
are all merely titular princes, and have no authority over the 
principalities they take title from. Moreover, that there are 
over five hundred athletae in Yedo alone, and hundreds in 
Ghosaka, all of whom get a living by exhibiting their prowess ; 



206 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

yet I think that the strongest one among the ninety we saw at 
Yokohama would not prove a match for some of the boxers of 
our country or England. They eat little or no meat, and 
develop more fat than brawn. 

Saturday , Jime \otJi. — Mr, Maury, Bent and I went early 
this morning to see Kurokawa respecting our trip to define the 
boundary to which Americans are permitted to go by the 
Treaty. We were received at the temple, and the matter 
seemed fully understood on all sides. After a while, Ido and 
Izawa sent in word they wished to see us, and soon appeared 
themselves, expressing their pleasure in polite terms and giving 
each of us a piece of silk for our wives, and four stone bottles 
of saki and a box of sugar-plums to beguile the wearisomeness 
of the way in the journey of to-day. So much for their hospit- 
able intentions, and we went aboard to get ready for the terrible 
jaunt they had described. At noon we were at the landing 
house with attendants, instruments and baggage, but saw nobody 
ready there to take the latter, or signs of much preparation on 
the part of the few Japanese officials thereabouts. We got 
them to start in half an hour, however, and proceeded beyond 
the temple through the stone-cut gorge to a station house at the 
foot of the hill, where we were desired to stop, for this was one 
of the guard stations defining the limits of the jurisdiction of the 
governor of Simoda. It now appeared that there was a mutual 
misunderstanding, for the officers said we would now go to the 
next guard station, while we said we wished, and were ordered, 
to go to the end of the seven miles. Isaboro and Tatsnoske 
soon arrived and told us in no less plain terms that the commis- 
sioners had no idea of our going beyond the guard stations, and 
no preparations had been made to lodge us, Mr. Maury sent 
a note to the Commodore desiring instructions, and we went on 
followed by our cortege. The incident was a good illustration of 
the ease with which a confusion of purposes may arise where the 
medium of communication is so imperfect, and little pains taken 
to state the intentions of each side. Isaboro accused me of 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 20/ 

misinterpreting and lying ; so Mr. Bent was addressed in a long 
speech in Japanese and, to make the matter plainer, Tatsnoske 
tried in vain to put it into English. They both returned with 
the Commodore's reply, by which time we had reached and 
passed another guard station, and seemed glad it was now 
cleared up, though I did not see wherein their responsibility 
consisted. We crossed over a number of hills into the hamlet 
of Hongo, where the station is to be placed, and returned to 
Simoda at evening. During the interview to-day some matters 
were settled and others brought up, which last showed the fears 
of the commissioners lest they had given or should give us too 
much liberty. From the general tenor of conversation we 
gather that they have been blamed for allowing so much extent 
of rambling as the Treaty states. 

Swiday,Jiine iith. — It rained during the whole day, so 
that there was not only no religious service, but no coaling ship 
either, which it was intended should occupy the Sabbath in 
both steamers. Consequently, there was some rest for the men, 
though orders came for them to resume coaling at sunset. The 
" Macedonian " returned this evening, the " Southampton " 
having been in two days. The latter had a misty spell of 
weather at Volcano Bay, but Captain Boyle was able to make 
a survey of the harbor and go ashore a few times. The Ainos 
or Kuriles were more numerous than the Japanese there, but 
lived in a most wretched manner, destitute even of the comforts 
of the Japanese, subsisting almost wholly on the products of the 
sea and hills, and under the complete sway of the Japanese. 
The antlers of deer were common on the ground near their 
houses, and some deer were seen on the hills. They were very 
hairy people, as described by La Peyrouse, and with their scanty 
garments such additional covering would be comforting, though 
I would not say, as Lamark would, that the hair on their backs 
grew two inches long because their j'ackets were so thin. 

Monday, June \2th. — The conference this morning was 
more tedious than ever, and small progress was made. The 



208 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

commissioners refused to let a party go to Oho-sima, nor would 
they consent even to three and a half ;/ as the limit of rambling 
at Hakodadi, less than which Perry declined to consent to. 
Three pilots were introduced, like spaniels on their four feet, to 
Mhom the business of conducting ships into the harbor was to 
be committed, and no pay was to be taken for this service ; in 
this manner the government will have their spies on board our 
ships before anchoring. The project of going to the limit 
allowed was discouraged, but its introduction brought out the 
suspicions entertained lest we should remain on shore over night, 
and the commissioners seemed to think no Americans were ever 
likely to need to sleep in Simoda, notwithstanding the Treaty 
made provision for a consul. Of course it was disallowed, and 
they were told that they had better set up teahouses or taverns 
for the accommodation of seamen rather than try to keep them 
thus on board ship. While thus discussing, reports came in of 
misbehaving, and on going to the landing Perry found some of 
his bargemen aad bandsmen so drunk they knew not what they 
were doing ; a couple of bracelets met them on board, but it 
was a bad corollary on our discussion, Simoda, like Canton, 
is likely soon to have its Hog-lane, and the worst features of 
heathenism and Christian nations exhibited, making human 
nature more repulsive, before the excellencies of Christianity 
come to be known. 

Tuesday, Jiuie i^th. — Mr. Spieden and Mr. Eldredge* 
took me along with them this morning to assist them in the 
discussions respecting the currency, in which there is likely to 
be no little difficulty, arising in some degree from the mistake 
we made in offering to value our dollar at 1200 cash, and letting 
it go at that until we went north, but still more from the evident 
desire of the Japanese to force us to pay in our gold and silver 
at their arbitrary valuation. On reaching the temple, we found 
Kurokawa and the committee ready to meet us, eleven people 
sitting in solemn rows to take note of what we and each_,of them 
* Pursers on the " Mississippi " and " Powhatan." 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 209 

said. Setting aside what was done yesterday, we began by 
proposing an equal exchange of gold for gold, and silver for 
silver, and after no small delay made them produce two ichibu, 
whose weight we compared with our dollars ; they agreed that 
three .ichibu made one dollar, but refused to consent to an 
exchange, saying that their valuation of gold and silver was so 
arbitrary that no reference could justly be made to it in con- 
ducting trade. It was twelve o'clock when we had reached 
this point, and the Commodore came in, rather surprised that 
in three hours we had made no more progress. At this session 
which lasted till six o'clock with only a short interruption, the 
limits at Hakodadi were settled at five ri, though yesterday he 
offered them three and a half, which they would not accept, and 
they had before offered five, which he declined. The temples 
at Simoda and Kakizaki were offered as places of resort for the 
sailors, and the desirableness of establishing shops or inns was 
urged ; and (what was characteristic of Japanese and Chinese 
swa}0 Lin desired the Commodore to give orders that no sailors 
should get drunk on shore as they did yesterday, as if this was 
our responsibility. Perry told them this was their lookout, and 
if the Japanese did not sell sailors saki, none of them would get 
drunk. A complaint was made against one officer for leaving 
religious books at one of the temples, upon which the Commo- 
dore said that, if they would point out who had done it and 
bring back the books, he v/ould give orders in the matter. He 
then said that, if the priests at the temple had not willingly taken 
the books, none would have been left there, and made a com- 
plaint in addition against the obscene books which the Japanese 
had given the sailors and thrown into the boats, declaring that 
such things were worse. He said that the Americans had no 
desire to interfere in the religious views of other nations, as 
perfect freedom was allowed in those matters in the United States, 
where even the Japanese might have a temple if they chose, but 
that they would never suffer the Japanese to insult the Christian 
rehgion, and any attempt to cast reproach on it would be met 



210 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

with opposition and bring down on them the anger of the Ameri- 
can people ; wherefore, it would be well for the Japanese to 
treat Christianity with respect. Another point they tried to get 
Perry to consent to — the accompanying officers with spies under 
the name of guides, attendants, interpreters, or servants — was 
rejected, and the entire freedom of Americans to go as they 
pleased within the limits, staying out over night even, was main- 
tained as being granted in the Treaty. A letter was brought in, 
just received from Hakodadi via Yedo, inclosing some of our 
written conversations held there, and stating that Perry had 
declared that, if he could not have ten ri about Hakodadi as 
the limit, he would make the Japanese pay 10,000 cobans as 
damages. The matter was placed in its true relations, but I 
could understand enough to hear them charge To and me with 
misinterpreting on these matters, and making trouble. 

Wednesday, June \\th. — The finance committees separated 
to-day, unable to come to any agreement, for the Japanese 
refuse to exchange our coins at the value in cash of silver, but, 
regarding our dollar as bullion, they give the nominal valuation 
at the mines, where weight is reckoned by taels and mace, and 
cheat us of just 66f cents in every dollar. The currency is 
now perfectly arbitrary, for the too-hiaku is probably not worth 
more than ten copper cash, while it goes for one hundred ; and 
compared with silver it is as cheap again as our cent, being 
nearly four times as large and only rated at 2.05 cents. Silver 
compared with gold is actually about 4800/1045, or only 4|- 
times dearer ; but discarding weight for weight, supposing an 
ichibu as pure as a gold dollar, the prescribed valuation makes 
$20 worth $10.45, whereas $20 silver would be worth %6.66, 
or an ounce of gold worth $8,448, and one of silver 33 cents, 
or 25.6 times cheaper. This most extraordinary valuation was 
acknowledged as forced upon the people by their rulers, but 
the latter would not take our dollars by it, though they paid 
the persons of whom we bought articles by it, pocketing the 
difference, If we dishked these terms we could stay away and 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 211 

not trade. In giving gold, however, when compared with the 
prices paid by the people in cash, it must be depreciated as 
silver and therefore is actually worth only one third of the above 
52I cents per dollar, or only 17 cents, making our $20, when 
compared with the rates of currency among the people, worth 
I3.45 ! Yet the Japanese actually make five times a greater 
depreciation of our silver than gold, for while the latter is as 22 
to 17, the former is as 33 to 100, so cheap is gold here com- 
pared with silver. Of course, we refused to agree to any such 
depreciation of our coins, and broke up the conference. In the 
afternoon the additional regulations were agreed upon with 
Moriyama, he standing out stoutly for discarding entirely the 
use of Chinese in all official communications, evidently, I think, 
so as to keep the whole intercourse in his own hands ; it was 
compromised by allowing no Chinese when there was a Dutch 
interpreter. 

Thursday, Jiine \^th. — The draft of the Regulations was 
agreed upon to-day. They refer to guardhouses, pilots, public 
houses, mode of purchasing articles, limits at Hakodadi, and 
such things. The corpse from Yokohama was brought down 
to-day and interred by the side of Parrish at Kakizaki, the 
Japanese behaving very kindly in the matter. The weather is 
getting now very warm, 75° or so, the wheat and barley are 
reaped, and vegetation appears thriving. Irish potatoes are cul- 
tivated here and will furnish good supplies to ships if raised in 
quantities. 

Friday, June \6th. — A third conference took place to day 
between the parties in session upon the Regulations, which com- 
pleted them. In the evening a concert was given on board of 
the " Mississippi " by the minstrels, at which fully three hundred 
Japanese and five hundred foreigners were assembled, making 
altogether a very respectable audience. The ship was dressed 
up, and the dinner was, considering our means, very good ; the 
seven commissioners and three bunyos all sat down, leaving 
room for only a few officers, the rest being entertained on deck. 



212 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

Everything went off well, and no fault could be found with the 
performances which were more spirited than at Hakodadi. The 
only drawback was a slight rain which incommoded us all 
during the singing, but nearly ceased before the party separated 
at about ten p.m. The Japanese were exceedingly amused at 
the dancing and tambourine music. 

This entertainment and the similar one given at Hakodadi 
will, I think, produce the impression which we desire to make 
that we are willing to make all the efforts we can to please the 
people, who have done almost nothing of that sort of thing for 
us, not even inviting us to a common entertainment or amuse- 
ment of any sort, or to go and see anything. The commis- 
sioners have shown themselves reserved on every point relating 
to the promotion of good personal feeling, confining themselves 
to official acts only ; and the Commodore has set them a good 
example. The Japanese hardly know how to behave towards 
foreigners ; they have been so long shut out from them that 
both officials and commoners are afraid of overstepping some 
regulation, whatever they do. This, in some measure, proceeds 
from fear, but a good deal more from haughty pride and con- 
tempt of others ; the mutual ignorance of each other's language 
further opposes much intercourse. 

Saturday, June lyth. — The Commodore sent his usual 
quartette ashore this morning to see the officials about the 
accounts and the stone and bazaar, and what not, but we made 
very little progress in getting anything, and the latter seems 
likely to prove a failure. The Japanese have not half the busi- 
ness tact which characterizes the Chinese, and more especially 
do matters of trade move slowly when the officials get hold of 
them. At three o'clock the Commodore went to see the 
officials and exchange the triglot copies of the Regulations, but 
they were not ready, nor were his sealed, and therefore no 
exchange was made. They expressed themselves greatly 
gratified with the performances of last evening, and were so 
doubtless. It was not till nearly six o'clock that we could get 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 213 

off, by which time it .was too late to think of taking a walk. 
The harmony of our conference to-day was marred by two of 
our crew going into a shop, pulling the spigot out of a barrel of 
saki, and drinking a basinful of it, letting the rest run on the 
floor meanwhile ; as the owner tried to stop them, they drew on 
him and wounded him in the hand, themselves too being some- 
what mauled in the scuffle. Such is one of the precursors of 
the trade with Christian America, though I hope the Japanese 
have discrimination enough to perceive and make a difference 
between the sailors who behave and those who act like fiends. 
It is amazing to see the lengths the thirst for rum will drive a 
man ; five or six fellows are constantly at the stanchion for their 
misdemeanors growing out of love for liquor. The officers love 
it almost as well, but take their own time when to have a bout. 

Sunday, June I'&th. — The Commodore moved aboard the 
" Mississippi " again this morning, about fourteen months since 
he left her. The chaplain had service, but no sermon, and, as 
one might expect, there was not much quiet on board during 
the day, while there was a great deal of trading on shore. 
Truly may it be said that life in a man-of-war is too often like 
living on the outskirts of hell. 

Monday, June igth. — To-day was so stormy that nothing 
could be done, and the bazaar was deferred by Commodore 
Perry, as he himself was not desirous of going out in the rain. 
The articles were laid out indeed, but not marked, and we had 
them all labeled and their prices given, which at only 1600 cash 
to the dollar were exorbitant, making the greater part of the 
articles twice or thrice as dear as at Hakodadi ; moreover, the 
variety was much less than we had been led to expect, deficient 
in many sorts of things which we had learned were abundant in 
Yedo, and not satisfactory in any department. The bad policy 
of their persisting in this unjust depreciation of the silver we paid 
them was again shown them, but either there is some reason why 
they would rather risk the loss of all trade, or the establishment 
here is placed on such a footing that it must have this high 



214 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

commission for managing it, and they will not change. The 
Commodore expressed his indignation at this mode of doing 
business, saying that it was wholly opposed to their professions 
of friendship, and that he would have nothing to do with the 
matter if they did not change and make the prices of silver and 
goods more conformable. However, there is no likelihood of 
any modification. 

We made some propositions respecting pilots and prices to 
be paid for them ; also concerning some spars ordered by the 
Commodore, which we were coolly told were still growing in 
blissful ignorance of their fate on the mountains. In fact, these 
officials have become tired of supplying our reiterated wants 
which, with the provisions consumed by so many of their own 
officers, must be not a little troublesome, and perhaps expensive 
too, and not worth doing too much for. 

Tuesday, June 20th. — The replies and dilatory actions of 
the Japanese were so unnecessary and impertinent yesterday that 
the Commodore quarantined the officers from going ashore at 
all, and sent a document to Lin and his colleagues, showing 
that they had violated their promises in respect to furnishing 
supplies and procuring articles wanted for the squadron and 
himself, especially in some dresses and the spars spoken of 
yesterday, adding that they were acting foolishly in their own 
view by not trying to do more to show their professed regard 
for the Americans, intimating his own opinion of such conduct 
and of the power he held in his hands. The paper was put 
into Dutch (no Chinese now being used in our intercourse) and 
given to Moriyama. How he rendered it to the commissioners 
we do not know, for he has the throttle valves of our inter- 
course in his hand, but in the evening he cam.e off and said that 
the non-procurement of the dresses v/as his fault, and of the spars 
was owing to Tatsnoske's carelessness, as he had failed to 
attend to them. I suppose that at Desima no care for such 
requests ever fell to the lot of either of them, and they gave 
themselves little concern about them here. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 215 

After this message had been delivered, we made excuses 
for Perry's not coming ashore, which were mixed with as much 
moon-shine as usual on such occasions, and I suppose received 
by the Japanese in a diplomatic sense. They however gave us 
(Perry Jr. having gone aboard to report progress) the dinner 
which had been prepared for the Commodore, by far the most 
elaborate entertainment yet provided. It was served up on 
small lacquered tables and a set of little lacquered bowls and 
chinaware plates, the large articles being brought in on bowls 
and chargers and served out to each person by the prefect and 
his aids. Warm and cold saki was offered, the former in thin 
cups of porcelain brought in floating on water. Less fruit was 
introduced than among the Chinese, and no candy or sweet- 
meats. We made the entertainment pass off as well as we could, 
but both parties felt rather awkward, feeling that it lacked its 
chief objects, neither Lin or Perry being there. After dinner a 
variety of little articles were brought in as presents, not alone 
for the Commodore, but his suite and Captains Lee and 
McCluney. In the exchange of presents the Japanese have not 
shown themselves at all generous, whether it is owing to their 
entire ignorance of the actual cost of the things given them, and 
therefore inability to j'udge what would be of corresponding 
value, or to their petty characters. We stayed ashore till two 
o'clock, and I then went to see how the tombstones were being 
put up at Kakizaki, and found that the Japanese are very 
expert in stone cutting, but the material does not retain the 
inscriptions for many years. They have customs quite different 
from the Chinese in their rites of sepulture, one of which is 
cremation, as was seen hereabouts a few days ago. Among 
other events of to-day was the delivery of about sixteen tons of 
coal which the engineers decide against, even at the price of 
1^27.50 per ton, and of ten or twelve cords of firewood, a large 
part of it sticks from one to one and a half inches in diameter. 
These important supplies are therefore not so readily furnished 
as it was hoped they would be, and are inferior in quality. 



2l6 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

Perhaps a constant demand may increase the quality as well as 
the quantity, and this will probably decrease the price. An 
exchange of cottons or other goods will doubtless make an 
opening for the barter of other Japanese articles. 

Wednesday, Jiuie 21st. — The quarantine continued till three 
o'clock to-day, at which hour the bazaar opened. The Com- 
modore sent Mr. Bent and me ashore early to make the 
arrangements for exhibiting the things against the time he 
landed, but when we reached the temple Kurokawa and 
Yenoske showed plainly that they were in high dudgeon, and 
that the scolding document of yesterday had made them angry. 
The prices which had been attached to every article yesterday 
had been taken off, and they proposed that, except a portion 
which had been set apart for the President, the remainder should 
be *aken off to the ships at such prices as we pleased to pay for 
them. It was with much entreaty and explanation that I got 
them to alter their minds and restore the labels, and put their 
own prices upon the articles, declaring that the Commodore 
would not otherwise take a single thing nor allow the officers to 
buy — much less let them be taken aboard ship. After some 
hesitation and talk among themselves they came around to our 
views and began to restore the labels and spread out the articles. 
Those for the President were mats, dresses, shell-work, plants 
and various birds. By the time we had made these arrange- 
ments and begun to number the goods and list them, Perry 
arrived, so that there was no need of saying anything respecting 
the matter. I le chose nearly a hundred dollars' worth and had 
them sent off to the ship, by which time the commissioners were 
ready to meet at dinner. The two chiefs were seated opposite 
for the last time, but Lin has not much conversational power, 
and the others, especially Takenoiichi, took the lead in talking. 
The construction and use of pistols and cannon and steamers 
formed the main topic of conversation, though now and then 
other points came up. The interview was a pleasant one, and I 
could not but pray God that the officers of this hitherto secluded 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 2I7 

land, of whom so fair a representation sat before us, might be 
guided by him to change their views and policy in accordance 
with the new state of things now coming upon them and their 
country. 

The feast was no better than that given us yesterday, and 
lasted about an hour and a half. We were only interrupted 
once, and that was with the usual errand by the orderly in 
waiting, telling the Commodore that the bargemen had run away 
into town, doubtless to get spirits. After leaving them Perry 
went aboard, and we made ready for the coming of the officers. 
The numbers were rolled up and put into a box, Mr. Perry 
giving them out ; there were nearly enough to go around twice 
and, as is usual, the coveted things were drawn by those who 
least expected them, Mr. Caulk, the gunner of the " Mississippi," 
getting the large paper-box. However, no other way of getting 
the few fine articles distributed without dissatisfaction was 
available, and there were enough in all to let each officer get 
something. It was a busy time for me for about an hour or two 
to get the various articles drawn for by one and another, ten or 
twenty of whom drew what they could not find. Before night 
there was very little left unsold, only a part of the umbrellas, 
shoes and coarse baskets remaining, while ten times as much fine 
lacquer could have been disposed of if it had been there. The 
assortment was far less than we had expected, and I think less 
than any Japanese merchant would have produced if the affair 
had been entrusted to him alone and he had been told what we 
most wanted. 

Thursday, June 22nd. — Various other articles were brought 
in this morning from the shops in town, and trade was quite 
brisk, three or four shopmen having the privilege of displaying 
their wares on the boards. The idea that all this trade and 
negotiation and discussion had been carried on in a heathen 
temple, as if the Americans had come and shown their disregard 
of Japanese superstitions, and the little dread they had of all 
the idols of the country shown by setting themselves down 



2l8 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

in one of the fanes, putting the gods behind the screens in 
darkness and neglect — this idea sometimes came across me in 
singular juxtaposition to the actual proceedings. The Com- 
modore sent some tea and glassware to the commissioners, and 
arrangements were concluded about the rates of pilotage, the 
prices of wood and water, and some other matters. The stone 
for the Washington Monument came aboard, and by mistake 
the bill for getting it out was forwarded, from which we learned 
that the officials were expecting the moderate sum of $80 for 
this single block, only a cube of three feet ! They charged 
$72 for the two gravestones and $32 for the fence around the 
yard, both of which rates showed their desire to make the best 
of our demands. The gravestones were neat pieces of work, 
and the inscriptions cut in good style, so that we had nothing to 
complain of on that score, but we made them take a reduction 
of $12 on both stones, as it was stated before making them that 
the rate would be $30 or $25 each. 

All official business being over. Morrow and I took a last 
walk up the valley, over the hill into the upper part of it, and 
around by the side of the river, walking nine or ten miles and 
finding many old faces and acquaintances along the road, most 
of whom, especially at Hongo, seemed really pleased to see us. 
The country looked charming, the rice was mostly transplanted 
and gave a beautiful green hue to the hillsides and terraces, the 
hills above were dressed in dark verdure and, altogether, we 
were constantly called on to admire the successive beauties of 
the scenery. We obtained fewer flowers than I expected, but 
the most of those near the paths had already blossomed and a 
few berries had become ripe, among which were those of the 
paper-tree. It was the only walk I had taken since our abortive 
expedition to find the seven-n limit with Bent and Maury, and 
was all the pleasanter for its rarity. We got back to Simoda 
about sunset, which on this solstitial day was nearly eight 
o'clock, tired and gratified with the excursion. If there is any- 
thing which has rendered the expedition to Japan pleasant to mc 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 219 

it is the walks in search of flowers and the greater freedom of 
intercourse with the people thereby obtained ; these have been 
taken, too, with an agreeable companion in Dr. Morrow, so that 
we have both been pleased with our rambles, with each other, 
and with the objects of our search. I shall always recollect 
them with him ; they form the pleasantest remembrances of 
Yokohama, Hakodadi and Simoda, although elsewise I have 
nothing to complain of. It is sad to see how few are the sources 
of enjoyment, occupation, or instruction which those around me 
have or find for themselves in such a spot as this, where the 
ordinary amusements and company found in seaports are want- 
ing. They scold the Japanese, the Commodore, the ship, the 
Expedition, but their own evil tempers are never blamed ; truly, 
it is sad to see such perversity and waste of time. 

Friday, June 2y'd, — Soon after breakfast all communica- 
tion with the shore was stopped, much to the disnppointment of 
many. Mr. Bent and I were sent there with final messages, 
which gave me opportunity to do some errands for myself and 
others, and to take a last look at Simoda. Many of the shop- 
men had articles arranged on their boards, having learned to 
exhibit them if they wished to sell them, and seemed rather dis- 
appointed at being told their customers were gone. I have 
found some pleasant people among these shop people, and have 
been surprised to see how much the women do in the manage- 
ment of trade. I got a crowd at the door in a state of great 
merriment by ridiculing a dull fellow with a shrewd wife for 
being forced to ask her opinion on the prices of things we wished 
to buy. In every shop, almost, a woman comes to the board, 
and in all she is present, for the family lives in the rear, which 
IS not screened in any way from the shop or street. The custom 
of sleeping on the same mats which by day have served for 
eating gives more room in a house than with us, who set apart 
so much space for bedrooms. The loft, where there is one, 
seems to be more often used for storage than sleeping. 

We returned aboard at one o'clock, the steamers having 



220 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

gone out to the mouth of the harbor and made every prepara- 
tion for an early start in the morning. The artists and others 
connected with the Commodore's suite have all gone to the 
" Mississippi," printing press, dogs, cats, bargemen, orderly, 
servants, boxes, birds, all except Mr. Perry and myself, for 
whom there is no room, and Dr. Morrow, who is in the 
"Southampton." The "Supply" and "Macedonian" are to 
go to Killon to find the coalmines, and then to visit Manila, 
chaplain Jones takihg charge of the expedition. Mr. Boudinot 
goes aboard the " Macedonian," and Mr. Mish back to the 
"Mississippi." 

In the afternoon Yenoske came aboard the flagship and 
brought off a number of parting presents, together with the 
birds and dogs for the President. He and Isaboro were in good 
spirits, and Commodore Perry entertained them with cake and 
wine. He asked them a variety of questions, too, one of which 
was about the results of the '' Phaeton's" raid in Nagasaki harbor 
in 1808. Moriyama said that the governor, whose name he 
gave us, two of his colleagues (like Kurokavva and Ishia I 
suppose) and ten others, all committed suicide in consequence 
of the attack and detention of the Dutchmen. He said that all 
men of character avoided disgrace and capital punishment by 
suicide, ripping themselves across the belly and then cutting 
their throats, but that common people usually hung themselves. 
Regicides and murderers of superiors were transfixed with two 
spears and then decapitated as they hung on a cross ; common 
criminals were dispatched by decollation, but crucifixion or 
starving on a cross was not common. He said he should 
readily make way with himself if he got into any trouble or 
disgrace, and the rest seemed not surprised at the assertion. 
When told that the captain of the " Phaeton " was now admiral 
at Canton, and might be up in Japan next year, they were much 
startled, but were recommended not to dispatch themselves, but 
rather make friends with him and drink his champagne. At 
leaving the Commodore gave each of them a bottle and they 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 221 

went away, shaking hands all round. They had gathered up 
all the Chinese cash we had paid them and brought it back, 
preferring to return it at 1600 to the dollar, though they took 
most of it at 1 200, rather than keep it. 

I went w ith them to the " Powhatan,"' where they paid over 
some more cash and received some more presents. Moriyama 
and Isaboro gave me their names on a slip of fancy paper they 
had brought with them, from which it appears that the Japanese 
have the same custom of a ^_$, a i^, a ^ and a ^ as the 
Chinese. The Siogoun, aged 44 now, is named Zhiun-na Soo- 
gaku Rio-in no Betto Genzhi no Chioja Ken Sadaizhin ; the 
Mikado is an older man, but the Sigoun's name was so long I 
did not ask for his superior's. Isaboro 's name in full is Genzhi 
Yoshimasa Tsu shio Gohara Isaboro, ^ 1^, ^ ^ ^ i^ jffi IPf -^ 
1^ 1^- ^ ^[5, the first two of which form his surname, and all the 
rest his given name or names. His present official title is Kan 
Simoda Bugio Kumi Noriki Ohoshets Gakari *g T*" B9 ^ 'It M 
$^lijMf-^f^' ^"d that of Kurokawa, his superior, Simoda 
Bugio Shi-hai Kumi Gashira T ffl ^ If ^ ®£ ^ IM' that is, im- 
perially appointed to be assistant colleague to the head (officer) 
at Simoda. He is generally called Bugio or Bunyo or Bungio, 
the difference being caused by the sound of ;;^ given by some 
persons and not by others. These officers are now appointed 
under Izawa and Take-noiichi, and expect to reside here per- 
manently.* 

Our visitors took leave about dusk, and this closed all 
intercourse with the Japanese for the first American Expedition 
to Japan, being within three days of a year, by their reckoning, 
since it anchored off Uraga. 

Saturday, June 2\th. — A supplementary boat went ashore 
this morning from the " Mississippi'" to carry some printed 
copies of the port regulations and rates of pilotage in Simoda, 
to leave with the authorities, so that the last visit was on our 
part, after all, as the first visii> last year was on the side of the 
* Moriyama Yenoske was found here by Townsend Harris in 1856. 



222 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

Japanese. The day began so rainy and the sea was so rough 
we have lain at anchor all day, no communication being had 
with each other or the shore, I wished much to take another 
ramble over the adjacent hills, but there was no chance ; they 
appeared more inviting than ever, and at any time they and the 
country about this port are not excelled by any harbor we have 
been in Japan. 

On a review of the proceedings of this Expedition, no one 
can refuse his assent to the assertion that it has been peculiarly 
prospered by God, and, so far as we are at liberty to say it, 
was planned and carried out so as to receive his blessing as a 
step in his plans for the extension of his kingdom in this land. 
The appointment of a naval man as the envoy was wise, as it 
secured unity of purpose in the diplomatic and executive chief, 
and probably Perry is the only man in our navy capable of 
holding both positions, v.'hich has been proved by the general 
prudence and decision of his proceedings since he anchored at 
Uraga last July. It has been favorable to his unbiassed action 
that he has had no captain under him whose judgment and 
knowledge entitled him to the least weight in his mind ; all, 
except Buchanan, spent their thoughts in criticising what he did 
and wishing they were going home. If the Commodore and 
the Envoy had been two persons, such a state of feeling in the 
officers might have at last crippled the firmest purposes of the 
latter and thwarted the whole enterprise. But such a dilemma 
was avoided, and Perry regarded all under him as only means 
and agents to serve his purpose, perhaps too often disregarding 
wishes and opinions of a comparatively trifling nature. But that 
extreme is almost unavoidable in minds of strong fibre, and bred 
for years to command, as he has been, such power has habit. 

Further, the remarkable weather experienced since Perry 
left Macao for Shanghai last April — fair, pleasant and healthy 
in a degree to draw the attention of all, who have more fre- 
quently cried out, "See Perry's Uick," than been disposed to 
acknowledee the hand and favor of God in it — has not a little 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 223 

aided the Expedition. Four or five of the ships have grounded, 
but none have been injured ; the " Supply " was ashore two days 
on the North Sand at Wusung, and thumped the rock in 
Simoda Bay, but apparently received no damage ; the " Powha- 
tan " narrowly escaped ruin near Labuan by striking a rock, 
losing only her fore foot ; the " Macedonian " and "Lexington " 
grounded, but were soon relieved ; and the " Susquehanna " 
got no damage by running on a bank in the Yang-tsz' kiang. 
The mistake made by the " Susquehanna " in coming to Yedo 
Bay, opening that of Sagami instead of Yedo, enabled the 
Commodore to tow off the " Macedonian " from her sand bank 
before she received any injury, and to go up before the town of 
Uraga in imposing array ; three powerful steamers like the 
" Susquehanna," " Powhatan " and " Mississippi " carrying each 
another vessel, the " Vandalia," " Macedonian " and " Lexing- 
ton," showed the Japanese the means we had at command, and 
may have inclined them to receive us now we had come, and 
not refer to the strong letter they had written Perry through the 
Dutch requesting him to stay away for three years. -It seems 
to me that he who refuses to recognize the hand and blessing of 
God in tliese preservations, and involving his general approval, 
is unwilling to recognize it anywhere or in anything. The 
simultaneous arrival of the " Saratoga " and the steamers at Lew- 
chew last year, and of the six ships at the mouth of the Bay of 
Yedo this year, prevented all delay ; and so has the regular 
passage of the store-ships to China and back to Lewchew and 
Japan, to Hakodadi, to the Bonins, and to Simoda from Kana- 
gawa, carried out the plans depending on them. The long 
passage of the " Saratoga " last March is almost the only case of 
delay, and this caused no embarrassment. The general good 
health of the 1600 persons in the squadron, destitute as almost 
all of them have been of fresh provisions since last January, and 
the good condition of most of the stores brought on, calls for 
particular mention, as the converse might have hampered- the 
whole enterprise. The Japanese could not easily collect fresh 



224 •^ JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

provisions for so large a body of people, and the extremity of 
sickness might have driven us to the extremity of forcibly 
supplying ourselves with food at some rate, even if the alterna- 
tive was instant hostilities and the attack of Yedo itself. Such 
a procedure, necessary as we might have deemed it for our 
own preservation, and not to be thought of in almost any posi- 
tion, might have been resorted to by some one less patient, and 
(I can conceive) might have removed the peaceful opening of 
Japan to an indefinite period. Now, not a shot has been fired, 
not a man wounded, not a piece of property destroyed, not a 
boat sunk, nor a Japanese to be found vv^ho is the worse, so far 
as we know, for the visit of the American Expedition. 

Some will ask what has been gained or done by this Ex- 
pedition at all commensurate with the cost it has been to the 
United States. What ultiinate results will be seen must indeed 
be estimated, and can only be, when time has disclosed them, 
both in respect to trade between the two countries and inter- 
course between their people, in respect to the facilities Japanese 
coal can give to connecting California and Asia, and in that of 
supplying whalers and other vessels with provisions and retreat 
from storms. But in the higher benefits likely to flow to the 
Japanese by their introduction to the family of civilized nations 
through the Treaty of Kanagawa, increased by the additional 
regulations signed at Simoda, I see a hundred-fold return for all 
the additional expense the American government has been at in 
sending out this Expedition, and a mode of expending her 
income which will redound greatly to her credit. By permis- 
sion of the Commodore, I drew up a paper of a general 
character which was sent to Lin last evening by Moriyama. 
In it, I endeavored to show how Japan could learn much which 
would be of enduring benefit to her by adopting the improve- 
ments of western lands, and allowing her people to visit them 
and see for themselves ; adding that it was to set before them 
the most useful and curious specimens of western art that the 
President had sent out to them such things as a steam engine, a 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 225 

telegraphic apparatus, a daguerreotype, all sorts of agricultural 
implements, books and drawings explaining these and other 
things, and not merely curious articles or eatables or arms, from 
which they might learn to make such, or obtain the assistance 
of those who could instruct them. The great change in the 
policy of western nations from what it was two hundred years 
ago was referred to as removing all grounds for fear of any evil 
consequences resulting to them by a greater extension of the 
liberty now granted, and that no one could wish them to do 
aught which would be injurious or hazardous. The paper 
closed with a hint respecting the danger, if Americans were 
followed by spies and officials wherev^er they went, and that all 
that was necessary was to have those who did wrong accused 
and properly punished. 

Whatever results may ensue from this and many other 
hints given to the Japanese since we reached the Bay of Yedo, 
I think that on the whole the impression left on the people by 
the squadron has been favorable. More intimate acquaintance 
would show more good and evil traits in our character, and they 
have now probably seen a fair average. Erelong I hope and 
pray that the gracious designs of Providence in thus favoring 
this Expedition will be still further developed, and the light of 
revealed truth be permitted to shine upon the benighted and 
polluted minds of this people. The glorious promises, yet 
imfulfilled, of the days of gospel liberty are evidences enough of 
what forms, at least a part of, God's plans in opening the way as 
has now been done. Among a people so inquisitive and acute, 
it cannot be long before some will be able to break away from 
the trammels which now bind them to Japan, and see, for as 
long as they wish, what Christianity has done for other lands, 
and what it will do for their own. The day of God's visitation 
will be one of love, till the ignorant and degraded have had the 
paths of knowledge and purity laid open for them and the page 
of Revelation put before them in their own tongue. In all this 
1 see a vast reward for the expenses of this Expedition, and a 



226 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

gain to the cause of humanity and goodness beyond calculation 
in paltry gold or silver or traffic. 

In reviewing the proceedings of the last few months, it is 
fair to give the Japanese officers the credit of showing none of 
that hauteur and supercilious conduct which the perusal of 
books might have reasonably led one to infer formed a part of 
their character. Compare the conduct of the Burmese when 
Crawford went to see them at Ava, or of the Chinese when 
Amherst went to Peking, with that of Hayashi and his col- 
leagues, and. down, too, in the subordinate ranks of officials, a 
class who are noted in China for their contemptuous treatment 
of foreigners, and everyone must admit their superiority 
in point of courtesy, their decorum, their willingness to 
receive suggestions, and their general good sense in discussing 
the matters brought forward for their acceptance. Perhaps 
more impracticable men could easily have been found, and these 
seven were probably chosen for their views being favorable to a 
change in the national policy, but the other qualities referred to 
may fairly be taken as part of the national character, since we 
have seen them among all classes to some extent. In no country 
could more agreeable and kind-hearted men be found than old 
Yendo and Fuzhiwara at Hakodadi, and if one could converse 
with all he would find some traits to please him. 

Sunday, June 2^th. — The whole squadron lay windbound 
yesterday, and we were forbidden to step foot ashore, though a 
ramble in the cool breeze blowing over the hills would have 
been most pleasant. Not a Japanese boat came near us, and 
night closed over the harbor without any other communication 
than Mr. Bent going ashore to take copies of the Regulations 
and pilot charges which had been printed for the Japanese in 
Dutch and English. This morning the five ships got under 
weigh, but the wind died away before the "Macedonian"' and 
" Supply " could get an offing, and they had to anchor, although 
the former contrived to get the assistance of several native boats. 
In this position of affairs the steamers left them in the harbor. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 22/ 

we taking the " Southampton " in tow, and soon Japan was lost 
to view. Doubtless our departure was a relief to the over- 
burdened town of Simoda, for during the last few days almost 
no provisions were to be procured ; and yesterday morning we 
saw the long trains of Lin and his colleagues winding along the 
beach toward Kakizaki on their return to Uraga and Yedo. 
After such an exit the townsfolk would hardly recognize their 
own quiet village, if the presence of officials in Japan is as much 
a scourge to the common people as it is in China. There must 
have been a thousand people in the procession, and their various 
insignia formed rather a picturesque train. 

Saturday , July \st. — Napa Road, Lewchew. 

The passage hither was over a smooth and pleasant sea, 
the southwest monsoon being just strong enow to keep the ships 
well ventilated. On the way down the " Mississippi " went 
near the island of Oho-sima, a large islet lying nearly a hundred 
miles north of Lewchew, to ascertain its size and whether any 
harbors existed. Mr. Maury went ashore in a boat to recon- 
noitre and, as he approached the beach, was met by a party of 
natives drawn up in arms to oppose his landing. One among 
them had a matchlock, and one, who seemed to take the lead, 
had a single sword ; others were furnished with stones, sticks or 
spears. Sam Patch soon undeceived them, and stated the 
pacific intentions of the boat, when many of the men left and got 
ashore, and some provisions were brought down to the beach. 
Mr. Maury slipped av/ay into a village from whence the natives 
had issued, and found it a most miserable collection of huts, the 
abodes of filth, ignorance and heathenism. The men wore pins 
in their hair like the Lewchewans, while the presence of swords 
indicated their proximity to Japan, with whose language theirs 
had more afiinity. They present a more wretched condition, 
even, than any of those people w hom we have yet seen, and 
cause one to notice how easily man deteriorates in a small com- 
munity where every member is compelled to labor for a living, 
so that there is no surplusage of produce on v/hich a govern- 



228 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

ment can be supported, whose members, while they may oppress, 
still do much to maintain a higher state of civilization than the 
people under them do or would. These islanders, lying between 
Lewchew and Japan, are worse off than either, and it is pro- 
bably because their little intercourse with cither leaves them 
ignorant of what is most worthy of imitation, and the feeble 
energies of their untutored minds prevent all efforts to better 
themselves. The shores of the island offered many patches of 
cultivated fields, probably of rice, and the hilltops were mostly 
well wooded ; between them a few valleys opened, in which 
something like orchards appeared. 

Yesterday we spoke an English ship, the " Great Britain," 
bound from Shanghai to England, from which we learned the 
news of the declaration of war against Russia by England and 
France, and some of the first steps in the dreadful drama. She 
first supposed us to be Russian steamers, and the officers who 
boarded her found the captain and crew had been in a terrible 
fright, from which they had hardly recovered, though they had 
seen the American colors for nearly an hour. 

On reaching the anchorage, Mr. Randall, Captain Glasson* 
and Mr. Bettelheim came off to see the Commodore. The 
principal burden of their information was the murder of a sea- 
man of the " Eexington" named Board, on the 19th ult., and 
the injuries received by another named Scott at the same time in 
the market-place at Napa. Scott and another comrade Smith 
were buying something, for which they had paid the money* 
when an official took it away from the woman, at which they 
became angry and began to drive him off. He called others, 
and Scott was soon thrown down and so bruised as to be 
left nearly senseless. Both the sailors were at least tipsy, 
but Board would take nothing and was not present when 
this attack was made, at least so far as they know, though 
he may have been coming up to their relief. Mr. Bierbowert 

* Lieutenant Commander of the " Lexington " which reached Napa in May. 
t Bierbower and Randall were the master's mates who had been left in charge 
of the Coal depot at Tumai. 



A JOURNAL OF THE TERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 229 

was informed at Tuniai that two of the sailors were lying in the 
street drunk, and as soon as he could went there, where he 
found the inan Scott too drunk and bruised to help himself. 
While getting kago to take both of them to Tumai, he was told 
that another A\as lying in the water near the causeway, and 
found the body of Board lying in a boat and frothing at the 
mouth. The Lewchewans said they had taken him out of the 
water, into which he had fallen and drowned. The corpse was 
removed to Dr. Bettelheim's house, and an examination by hini 
and Dr. Nelson of the " Lexington " showed that the skull had 
been almost broken by blows, and congestion of the blood on 
the brain followed ; no spirit was found in the stomach, nor 
any flesh wounds or cuts on the body. The testimony of 
the Lewchewans was so contradictory that no reasonable ac- 
count of the cause, provocation, or mode of death could be 
obtained, while his fellows were too tipsy to say what they did 
see or might have seen, if they really did see anything, and, 
of course, we can get nothing satisfactory from them on the 
matter. 

For some days after the market was nearly deserted, and 
for more than a week no one came to the house at Tumai. Mr. 
Bierbower had been stoned before this sad event, and Mr. 
Randall had written an earnest remonstrance to the Regent 
which Mr. Bierbower, armed with a cutlas, carried to the castle 
at Shui (or to that officer's house) and pounded away at the 
door till the paper was received, A reply came next day 
saying that it was a mistake, for the stones were not thrown at 
Mr, Bierbower, but the children had games of playing with 
stones, some of which fell near where he was passing ! It was 
promised, however, that the children should be ordered not thus 
to play with stones any more, but to reverently retire when they 
saw Mr. Bierbower. I wonder he did not inflict summary 
chastisement on them when the deed was done. 

The men left at Tumai have been supplied at stated times 
with enough to eat, and have spent their time in a quiet manner. 



230 A JOURNAL OF THE TERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN 

The temperature has been generally pleasant, but the houses 
have leaked, for they are old and tiled. 

Mr. and Mrs, Morton came in a little while after we had 
left last February, and have thus far received no molestation ; 
they occupy the same rooms as Mr. Bettelheim did. Some 
letters were found awaiting us from China and the United States 
which were too gladly opened by their owners. 

In the day, Mr. Bent and I went twice to the mayor's 
office to make arrangements for a meeting with the Commodore 
and Regent to demand the rendition of the murderer of Board, 
to ask for two stones for the Washington Monument, some 
flowers and birds of the country, the coins to be exchanged, 
and two pilots to go over to the Kirrima Islands with a party of 
survey. A strange catalogue this, but likely to be followed by 
something as strange, and perhaps more instructive to these 
impertinent islanders. 

During our absence the grandmother of the prince died,, 
when the people went into mourning for forty- nine days, wearing 
no hairpins, selling or killing no pork or beef, and pretending to 
close governm.ent offices. The orders respecting flesh-meats was 
evaded by the people, and Mr. Bierbower one day came across 
the pork market near the edge of a wood beyond Tumai ; so 
that it seems, here as well as in China, the people understand 
how much they are to value governmental edicts at in certain 
places. 

Monday, July yd. — I was sent for by the Commodore at 
five bells this morning to draw up a paper respecting the murder 
of William Board, in which he demanded a satisfactory ex- 
amination of the criminals, and proper punishment of the guilty. 
He had proposed himself to go ashore, but concluded to send 
this document instead by Mr. Bent and two orderlies, and 
straitly intimate to the Regent that he 'would not be satisfied 
with any subterfuges. The paper was strongly worded, and 
when we arrived there and refused to taste the provisions which 
were spread out for us, or to treat on any other subject, or to 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 23 1 

receive the birds and plants they had prepared in accordance 
with the request of Saturday, and also that no provisions would 
be accepted or bought until this serious matter was adjusted, 
and gave them the document to peruse, the Regent began to 
see that we were in earnest. A long document was put into 
our hands, the same which had already been given to Captain 
Glasson, in which and in their reports, they adhered to the 
assertion that the man was drunk, and, after stumbling along as 
he went, had fallen into the water and was drowned. It seemed 
to produce no impression on them to repeat and reiterate, again 
and again, that it was impossible for a man to fall so as to give 
himself such wounds in front and on the back of his head ; nor 
could he rise himself after receiving one of them, but would lie 
stunned. We remained till nearly noon and left them, to take 
the papers they had given us to show Perry, refusing to touch 
a drop or accept a single thing. In the evening we visited the 
two forts at the entrance of Junk river, to see their position, and 
then went by the spot on the causey where Board was picked 
up, around through the streets to the mayor's office, where we 
found the Regent and officers still in waiting, and every dish 
remaining on the table just as we left them six hours before. 
They all looked anxious, and when it was intimated that the 
Commodore was not satisfied" with their reply, and gave them 
only till to-morrow noon to make suitable explanation and give 
the real criminals up for trial, they were still more perturbed ; 
in fact, their silence was very impressive. The same story was 
repeated, but we would not hearken nor taste a dish. Mr. 
Randall and Bierbower, with all the old sailors, are ordered on 
board ship, so that matters must look a little squally to these 
double-dealing people. 

Tuesday, July A^tJi. — Our message and decided bearing last 
night had some effect on the Regent, for he and about a dozen 
attendants came on board the " Mississippi " this morning to see 
the Commodore respecting the case in hand, and get a respite of 
some days longer to examine some persons respecting the 



232 - A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

murder, amounting to several hundreds, then to a hundred, and 
then to a great many. As we knew well enough from the 
papers already given in by them that this examination of so 
inany was a mere pretense, the Commodore very properly would 
not listen to their request for four or three days, nor even till 
to-morrow night, but, on account of to-day being a holiday, he 
granted them till noon of to-morrow and, failing their rendition 
of the criminals, he threatened to take possession of the forts at 
the mouth of the river and stop their boats. They asked for 
two days, but went av/ay with this final answer, having first been 
shown some of the cobangs and ichibus obtained . in Japan, the 
like of which they were expected to exchange for the coins we 
left with them, though Ichirazichi had the effrontery to. assert 
he had never before seen them in I.ewchew. It is probable that 
they are not common, but this was going rather too far, for if 
the Lewchewans visiting Fuhchau have been known to have 
them, it is exceedingly improbable that one in his position has 
not even seen Japanese coins. However, his question, " If you 
have got them already from Japan, why do you now wish any 
more from us ? " was a pertinent one, and I do not think Perry 
is right in pushing them so hard for coins which they do not 
make, when we know how stringent Japanese laws are on this 
point. The party left us in much despondency, but I do not 
pity them at all, since they have shown so much weakness and 
lying from the beginning as to take away all trust in their 
statements. For this homicide they ought to receive a serious 
warning which will leave those who come after us the safer, as 
well as Morton who is to live here. I am somewhat inclined to 
think the man Board may have been involved in a fracas with 
the Japanese crews there, and knocl<ed into the water where he 
was drowned without any intention of killing him ; and this still 
further embarrasses the Lewchewans who, like Balaam's ass, are 
between two walls. However, this is a supposition. 

Fourth of July was kept by firing a salute of seventeen 
guns from each steamer, by reading the Declaration of Inde- 



A JOURNAL OF THE PKKRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 233 

pendence, singing a song, music by the bands, and the best 
dinners which the larders afforded. The day was charming and 
proved more of a holiday than Sabbaths even have usually been, 
so far as work was concerned ; in the moonlight evening our 
ship's company was entertained by the singing of the minstrels. 

Wednesday, July $lh. — Work was resumed this morning 
early, coaling, watering, etc., besides a court-martial on a 
drunken engineer and the two sailors who made the row in 
Napa. I was sent for from the " Mississippi " and on getting 
aboard found Ichirazichi and his colleague with a card from the 
Regent requesting the Commodore to send some officers, and 
whoever else he pleased, to attend at the examination going on 
at the Napa kung-kwan. Mr, Bent and I went, and found the 
Regent and Chief Treasurer in the office, with two judges 
sitting by the entrance opposite each other, and assistants or 
clerks on both sides of them, seven people on the floor, two 
bailiffs below them, and still outside ; on the ground beyond the 
porch, were two jailers with a criminal or witness between them, 
whom they were then examining. Heaps of ashes lay around 
the yard, an awning or tent drawn back was over the gateway, 
and a newly erected hut stood in one corner. Everything 
showed that we had finally set them really to work examining 
the case, and might now expect to get at the truth of the 
circumstances, so far as this deceitful people can speak it. 
After we had been seated a little while the man who was kneel- 
ing on the ground, his hands leaning on the porch, and uttering 
littie more than repeated interjections of assent to. the denun- 
ciations of the judges, was harshly seized by the jailer on his 
right and his arms tightly pinioned behind him, and then each 
jailer gave him a heavy blow on his soles, a blow which 
might well nigh have broken the bones had it not been so 
gauged that the end of the stick came down on the ground. 
However, rough as was this usage, the poor fellow gave forth 
no groan, nor moved his features, but repeated his responses of 
ho, ho, ho, to every interrogation or denunciation. As soon as 



234 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

he was led off by the bonds to the neat-shed, I called Ichirazi- 
chi and told him that, as we could understand nothing of this 
examination conducted in the Lewchewan tongue, it was need- 
less for us to remain any longer. He replied that they had 
been occupied since yesterday in reinvestigating the case, and 
had not been able to bring it to a close, nor could they possibly 
do so before to-morrow night, for the number of people impli- 
cated as witnesses or actors was very great, and must all be 
examined. The authorities of Napa had returned an entirely 
false report upon the case, which the Regent and Treasurer 
there present had now ascertained. The facts elicited now were 
that Board had gone into a yard or house to trifle with or lay 
hold of a woman, who ran from him, calling out to a person in 
sight to assist her ; he came in and seized Board round the body, 
who then struggled to escape and got out into the street. Eight 
or ten natives had collected who, seeing the sailor pursued 
and learning that he had attempted this woman, seized stones 
lying about the spot and threw at him as he ran, hitting him on 
the head and body. He fled for the water and the populace, 
closing in as they heard the fracas, only made it more difficult 
for him to see any escape. Whether he jumped or fell into the 
water, or was pushed or thrown in, I did not learn, nor had the 
woman been examined. 

This explanation of the causes and mode of Board's death 
was more likely than anything we had hitherto heard, but I 
upbraided him with the duplicity of the former report, its 
absurdity and imperfections, the supineness of the Regent in 
taking such a ridiculous report of a death and not investigating 
it for three weeks, nor as soon as we had demanded the culprits 
last Saturday, and told him the day of grace was up, the time 
allowed had expired, and we must return to tell the Commodore. 
It was nothing to us what investigations they were making, for 
all we wanted was that the criminals be tried, and the authori- 
ties of Napa knew them already. It was the business of the 
Regent to see that the reports of subordinates were trustworthy, 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXTEDITION TO JAPAN. 2 35 

and if he palmed lies off on us we should hold hini responsible. 
The life of an American was too serious a matter to be trifled 
with, however great was the provocation, and their nonsensical 
statement about the deceased having fallen into the water and 
nobody seeing it made it difificult for us to believe anything they 
said. 

The people around were as still as mice while we told them 
these things, and both the Regent and the fine looking, venera- 
ble old Treasurer were so excited that they stood around the 
little table between us hearing it all. I have hardly seen any 
person in my life present a more dignified appearance than this 
old man ; his white beard reaching to his girdle, his gold pins in 
a hoary head, and his clean, flowing, whitish grass-cloth robes, 
altogether formed a beautiful picture. I wish he was more 
honest. 

We left the draft of a treaty in their hands, consisting of 
six broad articles, which Perry intends to get the Regent to 
sign as a pact between the two nations. Some of its provisions 
extend over others, as well as all Americans. As we came off 
another poor fellow was brought up for examination and pinion- 
ed as the former one. 

Thvt'sday, July 6th. — The Commodore made no move 
yesterday afternoon, though I think it would have been well to 
have landed a party of marines at the Ame-ku-dera to show that 
he was not inclined to longer delay, and when he set a limited 
■ time he meant to adhere to it. However, it was not till after 
dinner to-day that he gave orders to Captain Tansill to go 
ashore with twenty marines and take possession of the temple 
and yard at Tumai, allowing no natives to enter or remain 
within the precincts. After these orders were carried into 
effect Mr. Bent went up to the Napa kung-kwan where we found 
the Regent and another Treasurer in sitting and the sixj'udges 
and assistants, bailiffs, and all in order, as yesterday, but the jailers 
and witnesses absent. The awning was drawn over the yard, 
and more heaps of ashes were seen, indicating night sessions. 



236 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

All looked serious, but the Regent rose to receive us, and we 
told him our message, that some marines had landed at Tumai, 
and the Commodore wished him to go to Ameku-dera (^ ^ •^) 
at ten a.m. to meet him. The officers present had a long con- 
sultation among themselves, and then a list of six names was 
handed us, being persons who had been proved to have thrown 
stones, and were present in the mob, but it was difficult to 
ascertain whether these had hit the man, or who had instigated 
the mob. They implicated six others who had not been ex- 
amined, and therefore more time still was demanded to bring 
the case to a satisfactory close, but we refused consent, as all 
the time they asked for had elapsed — that is, the shortest period 
they had stated. 

I will give these islanders credit for much careful inquiry 
into this sad case, and we know that many poor fellows have 
been pinioned and pounded already in their inquiries, and the 
chains lying around might tell more fearful stories if they could 
speak. In a similar dilemma in China it is more than probable 
that t\vo or three wretches, guilty of some other offense, would 
have been brought forward and given over to us to do what 
we liked with them, and the officers would thus have washed 
their hands of the matter as soon as it assumed a serious aspect. 
Indisposed as I am to let the Lewchewans off for their outrage 
on Board, or to excuse their mendacity in the report palmed off 
on us at first, I am willing to do all justice to their present efforts 
to get at the real points of the case, and even to infer that a 
criminal here gets as fair an investigation as anywhere east of 
the Ganges. The system of espionage is so well established 
that it prevents many a crime by rendering its detection so 
easy ; and the rulers can therefore afford to do honorably, in 
their view, when a case comes before them. Great cruelty is 
exercised, doubtless, in our view, but a criterion of that sort 
does not suit this latitude, any more than we ought to blame 
Bacon for his j'udicial cruelties as much as we do Jeffreys. 

One of the judges was called up by the Regent while w^e 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 23/ 

sat by, and as he respectfully stood slightly bowing before him, 
his white beard reaching to his girdle, his hair neatly done up 
and his clean grasscloth flowing dress, altogether gave him, in 
our opinion, as venerable and dignified an appearance as we had 
anywhere ever seen, far more so than anything we had met 
with in Japan. Mean and simple as this Lewchewan court- 
house is, such men as are here convened, to do what they deem 
(or feel) due to justice, raise one's opinion of the nation and add 
new respect for their institutions. And then, too, whatever may 
be the reality, either as to the provocation offered by Board to 
this woman, or her disregard of his offers or attempts, we 
certainly must place external morality in Napa greatly beyond 
what it is in Simoda, and Lewchewan officers above Japanese 
for decency and respect. 

Friday, July "jtlt. — I was sent for soon after breakfast and, 
on reaching the " Mississippi," found Icliirazichi and his cross- 
looker there, and judged by their countenances that they had 
some serious matter on their minds, which the suspense the 
delay had kept them in had not diminished. The Regent had 
sent them off to propose a meeting on board ship to avoid the 
inconvenience to the Commodore of going ashore, but doubtless 
to save himself the mortification of visiting him at Ameku-dera, 
where armed men showed that he was no longer master of his 
beautiful island. The Commodore very courteously allowed 
the proposition, and Mr. Bent and I went ashore to tell him 
explicidy the terms on which he would be received. We found 
him and the Treasurer at the kung-kwan and informed them 
that the Commodore was willing to meet him if he brought the 
principal criminal on board and gave him up unconditionally to 
him, and was ready to sign the treaty which had been proposed 
to them. They were not quite prepared to do this, and brought 
forward the Commodore's declaration that he did not wish to 
try the criminals himself; but I told them that I had said nothing 
about trying them, and as one American was killed, only one 
Lewchewan was demanded, and they need not bring off the six. 



238 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

After long consultation among themselves, in which most of the 
officials present j'oined, we left the office Vv'ith this ultimatum, 
and that they would not be allowed to come on board other- 
wise, though they could not, as usual, be brought to say 
Yes. 

At noon they were alongside the ship, the chief criminal 
with them, and were soon seated in the cabin, he kneeling 
pinioned before all. Not the least hint had been given them of 
what was to be done with him, and when, after I had given 
Perry the purport of the proceedings, in which the circumstances 
of the rape were given as the provoking cause of the mob, and 
that this man had been found guilty and been sentenced to 
banishment for life to Pachung shan, and the other five to Ty-pin 
san for eight years, he replied that he was now satisfied with the 
proceedings of the authorities, and with the examination and 
finding they had made, and now gave the whole six back into 
their hands to be punished as they had decreed, their surprise 
and relief was so sudden that the two chiefs and all the other 
officials immediately rose up to make their profound acknow- 
ledgments. They perhaps thought the least punishment would 
be imprisonment and death, but the Commodore had it in mind 
to take him to America, whence he might be returned at some 
future day, qualified in some measure to benefit his countrymen. 
However, he told them he should leave the matter in their 
hands, taking their sealed declaration that the sentences had 
been properly executed. Respecting the articles of the treaty, 
the Regent requested time to confer with the other Treasurers, 
and they would be ready to discuss the paper to-morrow and 
settle all its points. This was agreed to, and a meeting 
between the principals arranged for Monday. The Com- 
modore also told them he wished a bell to hang in the top of 
the Monument at Washington ; and I really believe he thought 
more of the procurement of this bell than the settlement of the 
case of murder and mob. The relief they had experienced led 
them to listen readily to the request for a bell, which belike 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 239 

will be used in the Monument to call people together to hear 
Fourth of July orations. 

Thus this difficult question has been satisfactorily settled, 
and in such a way, too, as to leave an impression on the minds 
of the Lewchewans that the lives of foreigners are not to be 
trifled with, but that we, at least, are willing to do justly by 
them and desirous to judge this matter fairly. This case was an 
aggravated one, and they are excusable, if any people could be, 
though to leave it with their merely making an apology would 
never do, and might be prejudicial to the safety of whalers or 
small vessels stopping here, if not to Mr. Moreton and his family. 
We of course cannot certainly tell what the authorities will do 
with the criminals, but I am inclined to think they will take a 
journey to the Madjico-sima. 

Saturday , July 8///.— During the forenoon the Commodore, 
who is as uneasy as a man with the toothache, and seems 
happiest when stirring somebody up, was arranging and dis- 
arranging the presents he intended to send to the Lewchewan 
authorities, altering the lists, but never coming nearer to satisfy- 
ing himself A pailful of beautiful fish, among them Spari, 
Balistes, Merra, and Aulostomus, brought in by Maury, offered 
a new subject for him for some time, until he got the artists at 
work painting them, calling them off from their dinner, lest it 
should not be done soon enough. The variety and gay colors 
of the fish in these waters exceed anything I ever saw before, 
but those we get are mostly from the reefs, and coral reefs are 
noted for gay fishes. 

In the afternoon we met the Regent and chief Treasurer 
at the Napa hall, and now were happy to partake of their good 
cheer, which evidently afforded them satisfaction. The birds 
and plants were brought out again, one of the former being 
supplied with a plateful of musquito larvae wriggling in a little 
water; if birds were only able to feed themselves- with these 
insects, Lewchew could support as great an aviary as any 
country I ever was in. The sojourn of Tansill and his marines 



240 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

for one night at Ameku-dera nearly used them up, such an 
attack did the musquitos make on them. 

At the meeting this afternoon we discussed the various 
points of the treaty, they having carefully looked the document 
over. To our surprise, the greatest objection they made was to 
the preamble, in which it was stated that Lewchew and the 
United States entered into a treaty of amity, saying that this 
would offend the Chinese emperor, to whom they gave their 
allegiance, and who would visit his wrath upon tliem if they 
assumed an independent position, as this preamble asserted. In 
reference to Tuchara or Japan, they said that the trade with 
Satsuma was carried on mainly for the purpose of procuring 
rare and fine articles to carry with them to China when they 
took tribute to Peking. They wished to say nothing respecting 
the latter trade and evaded a reply when I asked them if they 
did not take tribute to Kagosima also. The admission of being 
tributary to China seemed to please them, rather than be a 
humiliation, and the real fealty they are in to Satsuma must be 
a sore subj'ect and a grievous burden, or it would hardly be so 
mortifying to them to say aught respecting it. Of course, if 
they are willing to promise all we want it is likely to be held 
fully as binding to give the assurance in their own style. They 
tried, too, to get all the trade into the hands of the officials by 
making it the duty of the captain of the ship to furnish a list of 
what he wanted, but this was refused, though v/e altered the 
clause which they so interpreted as to oblige them to buy as 
well as sell. 

They defined illegal acts, for which all citizens of the 
United States can be seized and taken to their captain, as in- 
cluding " rushing or intruding into houses, ravishing women, 
forcing people to sell things to them at their price, and going 
about streets at night," from which I infer that these acts have 
been the chief obnoxious doings of Americans whilst here. We 
assented to this addition except the last clause. 

Finally, as Commodore Perry had stipulated these liberties 



A JOURNAL OF THE P1<:KRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 24 1 

for all Americans, English, French, and other Western nations, 
they supposed he had authority on these points, and they 
wished to have him carry Mr, Moreton and family away when 
he left. As the inference was a fair conclusion from the pre- 
mise, we did not reply, otherwise than by promising to mention 
the matter to Perry ; and such was their readiness to catch at 
even this slight but fallacious prospect, that both the Regent 
and Treasurer rose to return their profound thanks. This inci- 
dent proves the wisdom of the Commodore last January when 
he declined to give Moreton a passage in one of the ships. A 
sealed document was given to us by the Regent himself con- 
taining the promise respecting the criminals : — 

" A sealed declaration. — A sailor of your country, named 
Board, on the 12th of June, about four o'clock p.m., forced his 
way into a house and violated a woman, and then rushed from 
the place ; an angry crowd now came together, and some threw 
stones to wound him, others to drive him off, causing him to 
flee away, by which he was drowned. We have carefully 
investigated the case in all its circumstances, and adjudged to 
the criminals the following sentences, and have hereto affixed 
our seal as evidence. 

" To the murderer, Tokisi, 'J^ J^ ^, aged 29, of Higasi- 
mura, for throwang stones and wounding the American, by 
which he fell in his haste into the water and was drowned, 
banishment for life to Pachung-shan, 

" To abettors in the murder, Konishi, ^ "pf, aged 16, of 
Komi-mura, ^ j^ ■^^, Yara, Jg ^, aged 18, of Watanji, J^ i^ 
^^f, Arakaki, f^^ ^, aged 19, of Higashi-mura, ;^ ;^j-, Chln- 
ing, ^n ^> sgecl 18, of Nishi-mura, "g^ ^"t* ^^'^^ to Karagusku, 
^ ^^, aged 32, of the same village, banishment to Typingsan 
for eight years. 

" Signed by Sho Fu-fing, fp]' ^ '§]}, Superintendent of 
affairs in Lewchew^ and Un Tukuyu, ^ f>§ f§, Chief Treasurer. 
July 8, 1854." 

The other two treasurers, Mo Fu-mi, ^ ^ (jj^, who came 



242 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

off to the " Mississippi " yesterday, and Ba Rio-se, Jt^ ^ ^ 
seem to have no jurisdiction in this case. Besides the above 
sentences, our friend, the old mayor of Napa, Mo Zhiukuring, 
^ 3i ^, is deprived of pay but retained in office ; and four 
sub-magistrates, Ri Yung-sho, ^^i ^, Zhiu Zaidin, 4^ ;j^ gg, 
Zhia Bunmo, ^^XM' and Gu Fitsuching, i^ j{> tM. are all 
turned out of office— all for making a false report of the matter 
at first, which misled the Regent. It would relieve the state of 
a great rascal, I think, if Ichirazichi was sent off to the Majico- 
sima with the party, to stay there until he learned to speak the 
truth. 

We gave the officials some other orders, adding an in- 
junction respecting the bell, and the exchange of coins, by 
which time it was so late that all wished the conference to end. 
We declined to take their version off to the Commodore, but 
waited for them to make a draft of the corrected copy. Thus 
Lewchew is likely to take erelong a more respectable position as 
a nation than she has hitherto done, and this compact will bring 
in, I trust, lasting good to these mild and peaceful islanders. 

Monday, July loth. — As we landed this morning, the birds 
and plants presented to the Commodore were going aboard, 
and when we reached the town-hall there were the Regent and 
Treasurer, as if they had been sitting there since we left them 
on Saturday night. We discussed the various points of the 
treaty, to most of which they agreed, but made more objection 
to the conclusion, desiring to have it read that as the Commo- 
dore ordered these various points, they humbly consented to 
allow them ; but, as this arrangement was inadmissible, they at last 
agreed to express it that they consented to it, he signing it first, 
and they affixing a seal onl}^ to authenticate it and avouch their 
willingness. Fear of China was the only reason they assigned. 
It was a singular discussion ; we desiring to have them sign this 
document on terms of equality as a sovereign state, and they debat- 
ing every inch,'*preferring to own subjection to China and great 
inferiority to us. They wished us, too, to express, instead of 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 243 

" western nations," the names of England and France, which we 
could not do, since that would offend them and be invidious to 
others, and therefore took it all out, which made it unnecessary 
to say anything further concerning Mr. Moreton, about whose 
removal they gave us a long paper. Besides the discussion 
relating particularly to the treaty, there was some about the 
exchange of coins, which they still persisted in not having, about 
the size of the stones for the Monument, and also relating to the 
bazaar, the whole interspersed and alternating with soups, 
melons, tea, cakes and other solids, served up to keep us in 
good spirits. They could take no more effectual way to ge|t rid 
of us than to let us have whatever we asked for ; it would act as 
well as it did when the Israelites went up out of Egypt. 

These consultations were listened to \\'ith close attention by 
the by-standers, but everyone was agog when we opened the 
two lorgnettes and dressing case to have a peep through them, 
and the treaty faded in comparison. In this nick of time we 
told them the Commodore wanted a bell, a big bell, a bell as 
high as the table, a bell like the one at Ameku-dera, a bell 
which would m.ake all ring again ; and, happily, a bell they 
straightway promised. It was at Shui, but could be sent for ; 
truly, when it came off to the ship it answered most of the 
stipulations, but it was cracked, and so was returned in the boat 
in which it came. I think they must have thought us cracked 
too, by the way we asked for this bell. If it ever gets to the 
top of the Monument, won't it utter Perry's glory or folly ? 

When we returned on board, Perry was passably satisfied 
with our report ; and after dinner I slipped ashore for a stroll 
with Dr. Green, the first I have had since Simoda's last. 

Tuesday, July i\th. — The various agricultural implements 
intended for the Lewchewans went ashore this morning, and all 
were arranged in good order in full time to present to the 
Regent. There was only time to prepare four copies of the 
treaty in English and Chinese, and the rescript of the Com- 
modore respecting the banishment of Tokisi, the criminal m j-e 



244 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

Board. This paper was sent to them in reply to their finding, 
and stated that the Commodore was satisfied with the final ex- 
amination and decision of the Lewchewan courts, and with the 
unconditional surrender of the chief criminal to him ; he had 
given him back to them, with the assurance that their promise 
would be carried into effect, as a warning to the people, who 
were in future not to seize men making a disturbance, or stone 
them, or beat them themselves, but were to apprehend them 
and give them to the authorities to be dealt with according to 
the decision of the captain and rulers. By this course of pro- 
cedure good feeling would be maintained. 

At noon the band and marines landed at Junk Harbor 
j'etty and marched in martial array up through the market to the 
main street and then down to the landing place near Capstan 
Rock, affording an unexpected treat to the townsfolk and 
market women. At the landing the Commodore met the body 
and was escorted to the town hall where the Regent and 
Treasurer had made every preparation for receiving him in 
style, spreading an awning, setting out tables, and cleaning up 
the yard. What a doleful story would that yard and room tell 
if they could speak out all the suffering and injustice done there 
by the authorities during the past week in the investigation 
made ! But all is covered over and concealed from us, and 
perhaps it is well that it is so, for we could not help it even if 
we knew it. 

All parties being seated, the list of presents for the Regent 
and three Treasurers Vv-as presented. To the first, a revolver 
and flask of powder, engraving of the Washington Monument, 
and all the agricultural implements ; the first Treasurer, a dress- 
ing table and engraving ; the second and third Treasurers, each 
a lorgnette and engraving ; besides fifteen pieces cottons to the old 
woman aggrieved and assaulted. The copies of the treaty were 
then signed by Perry and sealed by the Regent, each party 
taking t\\o. This document is rather an important paper for 
this people, and will do much to bring them into fuller inter- 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 245 

course with thir fellow men and show them the benefit of doing 
so. 

The dinner was served up in usual Lewchewan style ; first, 
the table was spread out with ten or twelve small dishes, and 
then the warm viands brought on, fish in many forms, vegeta- 
bles, custard, minced meats, kidneys, preparations of flour, and 
cakes to the number of seventeen. We at last got through 
them, and managed to extract one laugh from the Regent by 
telling him that the Commodore would like to take his cook to 
America and teach him, in return for instructing in Lewchewan 
cookery, the mode of dressing some of our dishes. He seemed 
hugely pleased at this, and it w^as the principal event of the 
dinner. These islanders exceed the Japanese in cooking dishes 
suited to our taste, as well as in the variety and care of their 
feasts. They have, on such occasions, an advantage over their 
masters in wearing no long, unmanageable swords, too, as well 
as sitting in chairs instead of on the floor. 

We remained about three hours, partaking of all the dishes 
and enjoying a cool breeze, and left them, they pleased that they 
had got the Commodore's promise to ask the Governor of 
Hongkong or England on his return there to send and remove 
Moreton from the island, and he more delighted at having got 
the big bell, now at Bettelheim's house, though he had failed in 
obtaining any coins. The Regent, besides the bell, sent a pretty 
present to Perry of two bullocks, paper, pipes, cups, j'ar, cloth 
and other produce of the country. Altogether, this last inter- 
view with the officials was unusually agreeable to all present. 

Wednesday, Jidy I2ih. — The bell has rung the coins out 
of hearing, and I suspect the Commodore will now give them up 
as not to be procured. It was brought aboard safely this 
morning, and bandaged and welded and canvassed and painted 
and boxed and strapped, as if it had been a mummy just dis- 
entombed and ready to fall to pieces. Won't there be a ring- 
ing of Perry's praises when this bell gets to the top of the 
Monument ? However, as it has heretofore rung the orisons of 



246 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

idols, it is no desecration to it to be made to sound out the 
praises of men who are more than dumb idols.* 

I have been all day at the kung-kwan in Napa explaining 
the names and uses of the various agricultural implements, while 
the Lewchewans wrote them. There was a fine plow^ a tri- 
angular harrow, a fanning mill, a corn cracker, a corn grinder 
to make Indian meal, a cotton gin, a double yoke, various rakes, 
forks, shovels, spades, etc. Among them was a churn ; I asked 
the Lewchewans to tell me vi'hat it was, and after looking at it a 
long time and considering that as it stood next to the fanning 
mill it had some affinity with that, they concluded that it was a 
machine to place sideways and fan people as they dined. It 
might as well have been so explained as for any use it will be to 
them as a churn. Most of the others were understood and 
perhaps some of them will come into use here, but so expensive 
are most of them as to be beyond the reach of this people, and 
others are too complicated for them to use for a long time to 
come. The cotton gin will be thrown away and had better 
been given to the Chinese. 

In the afternoon various articles came in for the bazaar, 
much the same as were exhibited last year, but rather better 
and more in quantity. The dollar here is reckoned at 1440 cash, 
but all things are in proportion to that valuation, so we are 
served fairly. 

Articles of Agreement. 

I. — Hereafter, whenever citizens of the United States come 
to Lewchew, they shall be treated with great courtesy and 
friendship. Whatever articles these persons ask for, whether 
from the officers or people, which the country can furnish, shall 
be sold to them ; nor shall the authorities interpose any prohibi- 

* The famous monument to Washington at the American capital was not 
completed until long after Perry's death. The stones collected in Japan, Loo-choo 
and China are built into its side ; the bell, in accordance with the Commodore's 
wish, was presented in 1S58 to the Naval yVcademy at Annapolis, where it still 
hangs in an orientalesque frame near one end of Lovers' Lane. It bears an 
inscription in Chinese telling of its origin. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 247 

tory regulations to the people selling ; and whatever either party- 
may wish to buy shall be exchanged at reasonable prices. 

11. — Whenever ships of the United States shall come into 
any harbor in Lewchew they shall be supplied with wood and 
water, but if they wish to get other articles, they shall be 
purchaseable only at Napa. 

III. — If ships of the United States are wrecked on Great 
Lewchew, or any of the islands under the jurisdiction of the 
royal government of Lewchew, the local authorities shall dispatch 
persons to assist in saving life and property, and preserve what 
can be brought ashore till the ships of that nation shall come to 
take away all that may have been saved ; and the expenses in- 
curred in rescuing these unfortunate persons shall be refunded 
by the nation they belong to. 

IV. — Whenever persons from ships of the United States 
shall come ashore in Lewchew they shall be at liberty to ramble 
where they please without hindrance, or having officials sent to 
follow them, or to spy what they do ; but if they violently go 
into houses, or trifle with women, or force people to sell them 
things, or do other such like illegal acts, they shall be arrested 
by the local officers, but not maltreated, and shall be reported 
to the captain of the ship to which they belong for punishment 
by him. 

V. — At Tumai is a burial ground for the citizens of the 
United States, where their graves and tombs shall not be 
molested. 

VI. — The government of Lewchew shall appoint skillful 
^pilots who shall be on the lookout for ships appearing off the 
island ; and if one is seen coming towards Napa, they shall go 
out in good boats, beyond the reefs, to conduct her to a secure 
anchorage ; for which service the captain shall pay the pilot five 
dollars, and the same for going out of the harbor beyond the 
reefs. 

VII. — Whenever ships anchor at Napa the officers shall 
furnish them with wood at the rate of 3600 copper cash per 



248 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

1000 catties ; and with water at the rate of 600 copper cash (43 
cents) per 1000 catties, or six barrels full, each containing 30 
American gallons. 

Signed in the English and Chinese languages by Commo- 
dore Matthew C. Perry, Comm.ander-in- chief of the United 
States naval forces in the East India, and China, Japan Seas, and 
Special Envoy to Japan for the United States ; and by Sho 
Fu-fing, Superintendent of Affairs (Tsu-li-kvvan) in Lewchew, 
and Ba Rio-si, Treasurer of Lewchew at Shui, for the govern- 
ment of Lewchew ; and copies exchanged this i ith day of July, 
1854, or the reign Hien-fung, 4th year, 6th moon, 17th day, at 
the Town-hall of Napa. 

(Signed) M. C. Perry. 

(L. S. of the Kingdom of Lewchew.) 

In respect to this agreement, whatever it may lack, it 
contains enough to bind the Lewchewans down to a regard for 
their fellow men, and to treating them better than they have 
heretofore felt obliged to do, which erelong will do them great 
good. 

Tlmrsday, July 1 3///. — In the morning Mr. Spieden and 
two or three others of us landed near Capstan Rock to take Mr. 
Moreton the amount (I275) subscribed for the benefit of the 
mission here. We found Dr. Bettelheim just going afloat with 
a boatful of baggage, including chairs, tables, and many things 
which surprised us in one going where such articles of furni- 
ture are plenty ; and on reaching the house, we saw it was bare 
enough. Mr. Moreton merely remarked in reply to our obser- 
vation that he thought Dr. Bettelheim would have taken the 
house too if he could have done so. Something must be 
wrong about Bettelheim to act in such strange ways, and when 
we heard how he had claimed half the money given to the 
mission, and had gone to Edgarton and some other sailors to 
ask them to whom they supposed they had given their sub- 
scriptions, his mercenary spirit was too plain. 

I was occupied all day at the bazaar, where some one 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 249 

hundred dollars' worth was sold, principally of common arti- 
cles ; the assortment was better, far, than last year. The traders 
committed the whole management to my hands, receiving my 
accounts of sales without even examining them. We have seen 
so much better things at Simoda that these look very_ ordinary. 

Friday , July i/\t/L — Everybody remembered that one year 
had elapsed since the stirring day when we landed at Gori-hama 
(perhaps more properly called Kuri-hama ^ Jjl \^ in such 
martial array, and when the Japanese made such efforts to be 
prepared for any treachery on our part, as we did also on theirs. 
Now the Treaty is made. 

The bazaar was continued till about noon, when all the 
articles were carried off, and erelong the Regent and two 
Treasurers came in to have their daguerreotypes taken. Mr. 
Brown did as well as the glare of the sun and their partinacity 
in keeping on their light dresses would allow. They utterly 
refused to go to Moreton's house, for by thus doing they would 
measurably have acknowledged his existence. Soon after five 
o'clock Mr. Draper came in to let them know that the boat was 
ready. The Regent got into his chair, or kago, borne of four, 
and squatted down at his ease. In the street his retinue marched 
in front of him, spreading as wide as the street ; first, went two 
men carrying each a zuai Imchi, or bastinado, made of the lower 
end of a large bamboo, tapering almost to a point, and split 
rather smaller than the middle, both sides painted red, and in 
most respects like those used among the Chinese. Next to 
these flagellants (for to punish evil-doers is their office) came 
two gong-carriers who gave their instruments two raps in 
unison ; next, two flags, each marked ^ §^, kin-lii, or golden 
drum ; and just before the kago, in stately pace, stalked two 
young pages or secretaries, and between them and the flags were 
borne two balls of cock's tail-features at the end of poles twelve 
feet high ; what these oinoi signified, I did not learn. Behind 
the kago went a boy with a campstool, two bearing each a 
ivaku, or open frame holding a tent, awning, or something of 



250 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

that sort. The cap box and pipe-boys came last. Such is the 
dignity of a Levvchewan grandee, and while he passed, we two 
were the only persons upright, except the retinue itself. The 
Treasurers had flags but no gongs. 

When they all reached the boat it was curious to see how 
these attendants contrived to get into the same one with their 
masters, but except a few in the bow, we stowed them into 
native craft, and were soon alongside. In the evening there was 
an entertainment of singing and dancing, with a burlesque of a 
row in a barber's shop by Ethiopian minstrels, which amused 
them very much, notwithstanding their constant grave faces. 
This people, from high to low, put on an air of seriou.-ness, and 
there is less merriment in the thoroughfares than any place I 
ever visited. However, when the darkies tumbled over each 
other and scattered the flour about, even these quakers could 
not contain themselves. The diversion passed off very well, the 
evening was calm, and all the natives were ashore by ten o'clock, 
evidently much amused. Dr. Bettelheim thinks it will furnish 
talk for the next few years. 

Saturday , July iStli. — Early on shore to-day to settle ac- 
counts with the authorities, so that there shall be nothing to do 
to-morrow. They have learned how to charge pretty well, and 
I hope that the real owners of the provisions, and laborers, 
too, are beginning to receive some portion of what is paid ; 
we saw, a few days ago, that when the men received five dollars 
for provisions delivered in this ship they paid over one to 
the officer in the boat. In settling up for the expenses 
of taking the coal off to the ship, the Lewchewans esti- 
mated lOi 7 days' work done in the eight days it required to 
clean the coalshed, while at a large average there were only 45 
or 50 laborers actually engaged on shore and in the lighters, a 
new gang being sent to the shed each day. It appeared, there- 
fore, that the pay one official overseer received a day was equal 
to ten or twelve common men, there being about eight drivers 
to urge up the tardy. In this proportion, two poor laborers 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 25 1 

take three officials to look after them. Their bill of $129 we 
reduced to $100, and that of $41 we cut down to' $12, since, as 
it cost only $58 to build the V\^hole shed at first, $12 was plenty 
for thatching two wings and mending two ends. The Regent 
was admonished to keep it in order, and a flag was given him to 
hoist at the depot whenever an American ship came into the 
harbor, as well as a small one to take off to ships in the Roads 
when the pilot goes to conduct them in. How unlike this to the 
ignorance of the Lewchewans when the " Morrison's " flag was 
unknown, they having never before seen an American flag ! In 
return for the two flags, the interpreter gave me a drawing of 
the Lewchewan flag, called ^, and drawn like the triune 
powers* diagram. He said it was always hoisted by their junks 
going up to Fuhchau. The coat of arms of Kurokawa is pre- 
cisely like it. 

Some pieces of bullion were exchanged to-day for the coins 
left at the palace at Shui last February, but, as they were use- 
less as coins, they were all sent back except two hundred 
Japanese cash ; and so the long contested matter was settled, and 
the Lewchewans carried their point. The two stones were also 
taken on board this morning, and one of them broken up for 
holystones, it being utterly unfit and worthless. 

I was told to-day that the late Regent, Sho Rai-mo, 'f^ ^ 
^, whose removal from office caused so much speculation last 
year when we returned from the Bonin Islands, was still living 
in Shui ; he had resigned his position as Tsu-li-kwan from age, 
conscious of his inability to undergo the fatigues likely to come 
upon him through the squadron, and management of all its 
demands. No coercion was used ; it was a voluntary resigna- 
tion. This removes all the reports we heard then and, from the 
way I was told, I am inclined to believe it to be true. 

It appears that the present and last Regent are both allied 
to the royal family, whose surname is Sho, and they are cousins. 
The prince is now eleven years old, and will probably receive 
his investiture from China in four years; his name is »:^, Sho 



2^2 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

.Tai. His father died in 1847 aged 38, leaving this son; his 
name was Sho Iku, "^ '^, and he had reigned about ten years. 
The prince's grandmother, v^^ho died a few days after we went 
to Japan, was the wife of the king regnant when the " Alceste " 
was here in 1817 ; she it was who had been so alarmed when 
Captain Shadwell went up to Shui that she had been taking 
broths for seventeen months when we visited the palace in 
June last year. This palace is an extensive structure, much 
larger and exhibiting more skill than anything we saw in Japan. 
It was partly rebuilt, and thoroughly repaired about twenty 
years ago, but the woodwork is rapidly decaying from the 
climate, no paint being used upon it, nor anywhere else in Lew- 
chew. Its general design so much resembles a fortress that one 
can hardly avoid concluding that such was one of the objects in 
view in building it. 

Sunday, July \6th. — Mr. Moreton preached in the "Mis- 
sissippi" to-day, and Dr. Bettelheim in the " Powhatan." The 
former remained with his wife to dinner ; the latter has not been 
ashore since he came off with his baggage three days ago, and 
the coldness between them has attracted general animadversion, 
most taking sides with Moreton. The thanks he sent to the 
squadron for their donation was read to the crew of the 
" Mississippi " to-day, and did him credit. I pray God to pro- 
tect and bless him in his loneliness and preserve him from 
unreasonable men who have no faith. I accornpanied the party 
who landed him in the evening, after all communication with 
shore had been forbidden, and left him and his wife in their new 
home. The boat's crew left four dollars for their son Philip as 
they were shoving off — a handsome thing. 

The daguerreotypes of the Regent and two Treasurers 
were sent them to-day with a portrait of Perry's as a parting 
token of good will. They were doubtless pleased to get them, 
as well as Ichirazichi, though none were superior. With this 
closed the visit of the American squadron to Lewchcw, but not 
its effects, nor I hope, its good effects. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 253 

The Lewchewan authorities, having learned that their old 
trouble, Dr. Bettelheim, is leaving, are desirous to get rid of 
their new one, Mr. Moreton, and gave the Commodore a long 
paper yesterday, reiterating what they had told him before in 
respect to both the missionaries. It was written in the names of 
the Regent and Treasurer, Sho Fu-fing and Ba Rio-si, who 
say : — 

" We earnestly entreat your Excellency to condescend to 
regard us with kindness and greatly strengthen our affairs by 
taking away to his own country Moreton, who remains loitering 
here, in so doing compassionating our little kingdom. It is well 
known that we are a trifling, unimportant state, a country of no 
value, whose soil is poor and unproductive, as are likewise all 
the litde islands dependant on it. Not only have they no gold, 
silver, copper, or iron, but no silk, satin, or pongee ; and so 
meagre are the productions that it is undeserving even of the 
name or style of a kingdom. Since the days of the Ming 
dynasty we have been regarded as an outer dependency of the 
Middle Kingdom, from whose favor we have for ages received 
investiture for our king, and to which in return we have given 
tribute. Whenever there has been any important event in our 
borders, it has reported ; whenever the time came around for us 
to send up the tribute, we have then purchased raw silk and 
goods to make up into dresses and caps for our various officials, 
and such medicines and other articles were selected as were 
necessary for the use of the state. If we were not able to pro- 
cure enough in this way, we have exchanged our products, as 
black sugar, spirits, grasscloth, etc., with the island of Tanega- 
sima and friendly neighboring country, where we get things 
suitable for tribute, and send them to China. 

" Such things as are indispensable to us, as rice, grain, iron 
utensils, cotton, tea, tobacco, vegetable oil, machines, and other 
articles, are sought for in this island, whereby our necessities are 
supplied. Yet if the crop of grain here is deficient, people are 
forced to satisfy their hunger by sweet potatoes, since there is 



254 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

not a peck or a gill laid by in the country, and in times of 
storms or drought when the harvest is blighted, lamentable 
indeed is our condition, for we have nothing to eat and, as a 
substitute, prepare something from the iron tree (or Cycas) to 
save ourselves from stai-vation ; or borrow corn from this island 
to supply our needs. 

" Our traders in the market have only for sale tea, tobacco, 
wax, grass shoes, melons, greens, cotton or grass cloth, old 
clothes, and other trifling articles of daily use, and this traffic is 
managed by women, being therefore utterly beneath the notice 
or glance of other nations. Consequently, when ships from 
western countries have, during the last few years, often come 
here, the various articles of daily use they have required (what 
an assortment they were !) could not be procured in the public 
markets ; ^ve have called the officials and people to Napa, and 
sent some abroad to places to buy them, or taken other articles 
out of the public stores, which was reducing the stock laid up 
for the use of the state, and also hazarding a dearth in the 
returns ^of the farmers, both of which was dangerous and 
troublesome. In the years 1844 and 1846 some French 
officers came and the Englishman Bettelheim brought his 
wife and children to dwell here, all of whom needed supplies 
to be provided, difficult as it was for us to get them. When- 
ever ships of these nations came in we have made known 
these circumstances to them, earnestly begging them to 
take away these persons. The Frenchmen, knowing the sad 
condition of our country, went back to their own in 1848 
and have not hitherto returned here. But Bettelheim has 
been loitering here ever since, and has just now brought More- 
ton with his family to dwell in his stead, so that our people have 
no rest, our impoverished land no relief. 

" Learning lately that your Excellency has control over the 
ships of all western nations in the East Indian, China, and Japan 
Seas, and that none of them can go here and there to other 
countries without your orders, we have thus minutely stated our 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN, 2^5 

unhappy condition, and humbly look up to your abounding 
kindness, entreating that when your fine ships leave, you will 
take Moreton with you away back to his own land. Then will 
rulers and people be lifted up, and all will feel the effects of 
your great kindness, and wish you the happiness of seeing a 
thousand autumns." 

Whether the Lewchewans will do anything to Mr. Moreton 
to rid themselves of him I think very unlikely ; indeed, I rather 
think these repeated applications are urged by their Japanese 
rulers, who may change a little on hearing what has been done 
there. The mission certainly has great difficulties in the passive 
resistance the people offer, and needs the Arm of its Almighty 
Protector to guide and shield it.* 

Thursday July 20th. — Ningpo. 

We left the harbor betimes on Monday last, being my 
sixth departure from Lewchew, and accompanied the Commo- 
dore till about eleven o'clock, when he took liis leave and left 
us to go on our way to Ningpo. The captain took his course 
northwest towards Video Island, which was made yesterday 
morning, and a clear day enabled him to get down to the 
anchorage off Kintang, below Lukong, before sunset. The day 
was intensely hot, increased as it was by the great fires we 
carried in our furnaces, and everybody was glad to see the sun 
disappear. 

Two boats left the ship at sunrise this morning and, aided 
by a strong current, soon entered the Yung River and stopped 
at a custom-house landing at Chinhai. The tide was so far 
spent, however, that no boats could be got of a suitable size to 
take us up to Ningpo against the tide, and nothing remained 
but to pull the twelve miles before us. A tedious, burning 
pull it was, and the sun had passed meridian before we reached 
Mr. Rankin's house, almost exhausted with the sweltering heat's 
glare, thermometer 97°. After seven months of sojourn on 

* Mr. Moreton and his family remained in Napa about two years when the 
mission was abandoned. 



256 A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

shipboard, it was very enheartening to be once more in the 
cheerful company of one's countrymen, and j'oin in praise and 
prayer. We found the missionaries at Ningpo all well, two 
invalids, Dr, and Mrs. Macgowan having gone to Chusan to 
recruit.. We had, as we soon learned, come at a most oppor- 
tune time, not less to the surprise than the joy of our friends, 
for only a few days had elapsed since the}^ had been placed in 
considerable danger by the violent proceedings of Captain 
Lopez, commanding the Portuguese corvette "Don Joao Island," 
then lying off the consul's. The circumstances are briefly these : 
For some years the Portuguese lorchas have carried on a 
thriving business in convoying Chinese junks up and down the 
coast, in which they have committed so many atrocious acts 
against their customers, as well as the people along the coast 
generally, that they are losing it, and the Canton junks refuse 
to take their protection. The Portuguese stigmatize these men 
as pirates, and have had a number of collisions with them and 
their vessels, in which lives have been lost on both sides. This 
has created bad feeling, and the Portuguese consul Marquis, 
finding that his cause was losing ground, sent to Macao for the 
corvette. She came up, and the Canton men began to prepare 
for resistance. Things went on from bad to worse, the consul 
and captain thinking themselves invincible, till the latter in an 
evil hour took his barque into the north or Tsz'ke branch of 
the river, nearly abreast of the houses of the American mis- 
sionaries, and off the line of Canton junks on the other side of 
the river under the city walls. On the loth he opened a fire 
upon them, having given no foreigners any notice of his design, 
and sure that many of his balls would go into the city, while, 
if the junks returned his fire, their balls would fly here and 
there among the houses of the Americans, putting them in 
imminent danger. However, the Chinese left their boats and 
escaped without much injury, as did also our countrymen ; but 
many balls went from the corvette into the city, injuring dwel- 
lings and destroying five or six people. In one case an old 



A JOURNAL OF THE PEKRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 25/ 

man was hit, and his son, walking on, heard that he was 
wounded and went back to assist him, when a second ball 
killed them both. The people of Ningpo were naturally terri- 
fied at these proceedings and began to pack up their valuables 
and clear out, while the Tautai was totally at a loss what 
course to take. He had a conference with Mr. Meadows and 
Dr. McCartee and wanted them to promise that an English or 
American steamer should come down, which of course neither 
of them could do. No one could tell what a boasting Portu- 
guese captain might do in such circumstances, and this position 
of affairs rendered the " Powhatan's " arrival a matter of congra- 
tulation to all, especially to Mrs. Rankin, as her husband showed 
us a ball or slug which had hit the house. So unprepared were 
they all for our appearance that it was some time before they 
could be assured that it was not the " Susquehanna." A letter 
was drawn up by Lieutenant Pegram in the course of the day 
to send to Captain Lopez, but as we were told that a conference 
was to take place on the morrow between him and the Tautai, 
he decided to submit it first to Captain McCluney, pending the 
result of this interview. 

Such was the hap we found at Ningpo, Our company 
was distributed around, Mr. Perry and the surgeon going to 
McCartee's house, Nicholson and the purser to Way's, Captain 
Jones to Martin's,* Mr. Randall and King to Goddard's, and 
Mr. Pegram and I to Rankin's, Cobbold taking Bettelheim. 
After dinner we took a walk through the town v»'ith McCartee, 
and at last, after twenty-one years in China, I have this day 
been inside of one of her cities. The doctor was greeted by 
many persons, and we went through various streets and into 
niany shops, cver3^where finding a pleasant reception. The walk 
was prolonged until darkness overtook us, and we were glad to 
get out of the hot streets into the cool breeze on the river and 
the cooler verandahs of the houses, I found the streets of 
Ningpo more dilapidated, the houses less substantial, and shops, 
* Rcv.Dr. W. A, P.^Iartin. 



25S A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 

stalls and markets generally less extensive and bustling than I 
Had expected, but probably much of the dullness was owing to 
the late commotion, and something to the time of day. The 
pai-lau were, many of them, beautiful structures, 'and if there was 
more space around them to set them off, they would equal in 
effect many of the porticos and pillars of European cities. 

Saturday , July 227id. — Off Chinhai. 

Yesterday about noon Captain McCluney sent off the launch 
containing twelve marines, with a howitzer and some ammuni- 
tion, and his instructions to Lieutenant Pegram to remain in 
Ningpo until Captain Lopez gave the most satisfactory assu- 
rances that American lives and property should not again be 
jeoparded by his proceedings. The boat reached town about 
sunset, and there was some stir in the heretofore quiet premises 
of McCartee as the marines marched into his yard, and the 
sailors drew the brass fieldpiece over the pavement. There 
were about eighty persons now about the mission houses from 
the ship, all of whom were soon accommodated with as com- 
fortable sleeping places as could be wished. The only thing 
mortifying to us in the eyes of the Chinese about the houses was 
the drunken conduct of a few of the sailors. 

This morning Lieutenant Nicholson took the letter to 
Captain Lopez, who promised an answer as soon as he had 
conferred with the consul. In the meantime, nothing could be 
done, and we hoped he would soon prepare one, for it was 
desirable to get the men again on board ship out of the sun, of 
which they seemed to have not the least dread. Near noontide 
one of them was struck dead, falling like a log on the side of 
the path, and hardly conscious of any ailment or pain before 
life was gone. He was alone as he fell, but some of his com- 
rades came up in a few minutes and carried him into Dr. 
McCartee's dispensary. There was nothing to do for him but 
give him a decent burial, which was done about sunset. Thus 
quickly was this poor man called to leave this world ; he had 
drunk but little during the morning, though he was notorious 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 259 

for violent conduct when in liquor, and had already given 
trouble by going into a shop at Simoda, where he broke open 
saki pots and wounded a Japanese who tried to prevent his 
violent proceedings. Alas, for James Clark ! 

Sunday, July 2ytL — The captain of the corvette had sent 
in a letter which was deemed satisfactory, and is likely to pre- 
vent his doing anything more which will endanger the lives 
and property of the Americans living at Ningpo. Captain 
McCluney's intention was to force him to respect both if he 
hesitated the least, for his conduct had been such as put him 
without the limits of all respect, and treat him like a brigand. 

Friday, Atigust nth. — Canton. 

In seven months from the day I left I am permitted to 
return to this city in health. The steamer reached Hongkong 
in thirty-five hours from Amoy, and I soon learned from Dr. 
Morrow that all my dear family were well. I went to Macao 
to see them on Tuesday evening in the " Fennimore' Cooper " and 
spent Wednesday and Thursday in Macao. How pleasant was 
the meeting, those know who have been long separated. God 
had answered all my prayers for their health and safety, had 
provided them a spacious house, and loaded us all with benefits. 
The inspection of the curiosities brought with me furnished 
amusement during the two days I w^as there, and their distribu- 
tion gratified the givers and receivers in an equal degree. 

I came up to-day in the " Mississippi " and reached Canton 
at dark, the whole party soaking v\'et from exposure to a furious 
squall. 

Thus ends my expedition to Japan, for which praise be to 
God! 



^Z^ 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 26 1 

After the reading of selections from the Journal, the Chairman asked if any- 
present had any questions or remarks to offer. Rev. E. R. Miller said that he had 
been told by a Japanese that he went to Uraga(?) with the express purpose of killing 
Commodore Perry, who, as he believed, had come on an errand which tended to the 
overthrow of Japan. Just as he reached the deck of the U.S. man-of-war, one of 
the petty officers slipped and would have fallen overboard, if the Commodore had 
not caught him and helped him. The would-be assassin was so impressed by the 
fact that a man of such high rank as Commodore Perry should exert himself to 
save the life of a subordinate, that he abandoned the attempt upon Perry's life. 

Mr. Miller also stated that, because Williams had fallen into a bad habit of 
frequently using iadashi for " but," the Japanese gave him the nickname of 
Tadashi San, or Mr. But ! 



A General Meeting of the Asiatic Society of Japan was held in the Society's 
Rooms in the Methodist Publishing House, No. I. Shichome, Ginza, Tokyo, at 
4 p.m. Wednesday, October 20, 1909. In the absence of the President, H.E. Sir 
Claude MacDonald, the chair was occupied by Prof. E. H, Vickers, Vice-Pres- 
ident for Tokyo. The m.inutes of the last meeting, having been printed, were 
taken as read. The Recording Secretary announced that Rev. A. W. Place, of 
Tokyo, Miss Mary St owe, of Tottori, and Mr. C. H. Rastall, of Kobe, had been 
elected members of the Society. He also announced that Mr. R. S. Miller, of 
the American Embassy, Tokyo, had resigned as a member of the Council, on 
account of his departure from Japan ; and that the vacancy had been filled by the 
election of Rev. D. C. Greene, D.D., LL.D., just returned from America. The 
chair then called upon Mr. E. W. Clement to read selections from his work on 
" Japanese Chronology." 

(The paper will appear as a Supplement to this volume of the Transactions.) 

After Mr. Clement had finished, the subject was thrown open for discussion, 
when Rev. C. F. Sweet read some " Notes " taken from an article on Japanese 
chronology in a recent magazine. These notes supplied one more explanation, 
by a Japanese scholar, of what may be a more rational chronology of the early 
history of this Empire. That hypothesis would place the founding of the 
Empire by Jimmu Tenno at 24 B.C. 

After the Chainnan had expressed the thanks of the Society for the paper, 
he declared the meeting adjourned. 



Books and Transactions received during the Summer 
Vacations, 1909. 

Everyday Japan, by A. Lloyd (presented). 

Journal Royal Asiatic Society, July 1909, containing, inter alia, articles on 
Pythagoras and Transmigration, and the Manikyala Inscription, the latter of 
which is of special interest in view of the recent discovery of Sakya Muni's relics. 



262 ASIATIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 

Zeitschift der deuischeii inorgenl. Geselhchaft. Vol. Ixiii. Nos. 2 and 3. 
containing article on the Aioka inscriptions. 

Geogi-aphical Journal, July, August, 1909. The July number contains an- 
account by Dr. M. A. Stein of his Explorations in Central Asia, 1906-8. 

Bulletin de la Societe Franco-Japonaise de Paris. Articles on Japanese 
Swords; The Ideas which inspired the Japanese Restoration Movement; The 
Japanese Budget for 1909-10. This valuable publication will, it is hoped, be 
henceforth on our regular list of Exchanges. 

Journal of the Siarn Society. Vol. v., pt. I. ; vol. vi., pt. I and 2. 

Btdletin de V Ecole Francaise de V Extreme Orient : ix 2, containing, inter 
alia, a Study on the lyric Drama of Japan by Mons. N. Peri, and reviews of Prof. 
Groot's " Religious System of China," and of Mons. Bourgeois " Langue Japo- 
naise." There is also a summarized chronicle-ef Japanese affairs. 

JMelanges Japonais. No. 23, July 1909. Articles on Tenrikyo, Hayashi 
Razan, Japanese Companies, Religious Press of Japan, Fortune -telling, and 
Miscellanies. A most interesting number. 

Journal of Noiili China Branch of Royal Asiatic Society. Vol. xl, 1 909, 
Archaeology of China's Ancient Capitals, Chinese Law and Equity, an Ascent by 
Mr. Morrison [Niiiake yania in Formosa). 

Btdletin Ameiican Geog. Soc'y. August, 1909, 

Cambridge Antiqtiarian Society. No. lii. 

Bataviait Society of Aris atid Sciences. — 

Journal, vol. li., pts. 3 and 4. 
Transactions, vol. Ivii. 

Canadian Institute. April, 1909. 

University of Coloj-ado Studies, vi, 4. 

Froc. Royal Society. A 82, A 556, 557. 
B 81, B 548. 

Proc. Royal Society Edinburgh, xxix.pt., 5. 

Harvard AIus. Cojnp. Zool. lii., 10, II, 12. 

Chinese Recorder. August, 1909 ; September, 1909. 

Science of Man. July, 1909. 

Acts of Orientalist Congress, Copenhagen (presented). 

Adagnetic Surziey of South Africa (presented). 

Proceedings of the United States Museum, vol. 34., containing an interesting 
paper with plates on Jewish Ceremonial. 

This and a number of Smithsonian Institution and other publications have 
been sent to the Keiogijuku Library. 

September 29th, 1909. 

Ethnographic Survey of India. 
Anthropometric Data of N. W. Borderland. 
Anthropometric Data of Beluchistan. 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 263 

Craniological Data from Indian Museum. 

Geol. Survey of India, xxxvii., pt. 3. 

Geographical Journal, 1909, September (co:itaiaing Dr. Aurel Stein's article 
on Explorations in Central Asia, igo6-S(* 

Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute. Vol. xxxix., 1909. 

Science of Man. August, 1909. 

Russian Geographical Soc. vol. xxxiv. 

O. Nachod: Literature of Japan for the year 1907. A most painstaking 
summary, appearing in JahrcsbertcJite der Geschicktsioissenschaft. From the 
author. 

Harvard Museum of Comp. Zool. lii. 13. 

Chinese Record. October, 1909 (article on Chinese Students in Japan). 

Geological Survey of India xxxvii, i, 2, 3. (from the Government of India), 

Journal of the Russian Orientalists' Society, Harbin. 

A. Lloyd, Hon. Librarian. 




TRANSACTIONS 



OF 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN, 



Vol. XXXVII: Part II. 



A JOURNAL OF THE PERRY EXPEDITION TO JAPAN. 
(1853-1854.) 



Yokohama, Shanghai, IIongkonc, Singapoue : Kkli.y & Walsh, L'u. 

TtiKYO : Z. P. Maruya & Co., L'D. 

I,oNi)ON : Kegan Paul, Truebner & Co., L'd. 

Lkh'zig: Otto Marrassowttz. 



PRICE Yen 3.50 

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Printed at The Fokuinifrintino Co., Ltd., No. 81, Yamashita Cho, Yokohama, Japan. 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



Fresident: H. E Sir Claude MacDonald, K. C. M. G., G. C. 
V. O. , British Embassy, Kojimachi, Tokyo. 

Vice-Fresidents : for Tokyo, Prof. E. fl. Vickers, No. 2 Mita; 
for Yokohama, J. C. Hall, Esq., l^ritish Consulate- 
General. 

Corresponding Secretary : Rev. Clay MacCauley, Yuitsu Kwan, 
Shiba, Tokyo. 

Recording Secretaries : for Tokyo, Rev. C. F. Sweet, 56 Tsukiji ; 
for Yokohama, W. B. Mason, Esq., 104-c Bluff. 

Treasurer : Prof J. T. Swift, 5 Tsukiji, Tokyo. 

Librarian: Prof. A. Lloyd, 13 ligura, Azabu, Tokyo. 



MEMBERS OF COUNCIL. 



Prof M. Anezaki. Rev. A. F. King. 

Rev. J. Dahlmann. R. J. Kirby, I^sq. 

G. M. Fisher, Esq. Rev. E. R. Miller. 

J. McD. Gardiner. ' Prof F. P. Purvis. 

i 

Rev. D. C. Greene, D.D., LL.D. ! Rev. H. St. George Tucker.